Some advice for Spain and Portugal in this sovereign debt crisis

After reviewing the recent aid package for Greece announced by the euro zone on Sunday in my articles on Monday and Tuesday it became clear to me that it was a short-term palliative rather than a cure for Greece’s problems which are much longer term. It would appear that yesterday  world markets came to a not dissimilar conclusion as we saw quite a bit of nervousness and risk aversion which led to considerable market movement. Quite what the euro zone’s leaders made of this as their grand project to help Greece appeared to actually make things worse for her is hard to say. As they have behaved somewhat irrationally and erratically during this crisis they are hard to figure out. However as the situation developed (and spread to Spain) then the Spanish Prime Minister Jose Zapatero called the speculation “complete madness.” You may not be surprised to hear that his statement was followed by further stock declines. It is like they inhabit another universe which has an alternate reality.

I like always to make positive suggestions and here is one. If the leaders of or anyone influential in Spain or Portugal are reading this I suggest you take a look at what Ireland has done. I wrote on this subject on the 2nd April and I concluded that her early decisive austerity package was well received by the markets and that there was a reward for virtue.

I am pleased to report that there has been a reward for virtue from the financial markets if you compare Ireland with Greece. That is not the message many (politicians in trouble) want to hear.


I believe that this is still true and that a dose of such medicine would help both Spain and Portugal. Indeed I recommended this for Portugal on the 27th April in my analysis of her situation. There is talk of her taking action but she badly needs action and not talk. Time is running very short.

What actually happened yesterday?

When markets become unsettled and nervous usually they are swept with rumours, well yesterdays was that Spain had asked the IMF for an aid package of either 240 or 280 billion Euros. I did not particularly believe it for two reasons. The first is that it would not be enough, the second is that the IMF would not lend that much in my opinion. So there is a blatant flaw there…. but these types of rumours are more examples of psychology rather than cold hard facts which are often somewhat weak.

The first impact was on bond yields. Here there was more distress for Greece with her ten-year government bond yield closing at 9.79% which is +6.82% over the German ten-year bund, and her three-year government bond yield rose to 16.48%. I put that in to suggests that the four German professors who are going to the German Constitutional Court might have an easy job as it makes a subsidy of 11.48% by my maths. If we look at short- term Greek government bonds we should be seeing falls in yields because of the changes in ECB collateral rules yet two-year bond yields have surged nearly 5% since I was typing yesterday to around 14.5%. I wish to just reinforce this message as it is important, we have bankers turning down what is a very easy carry trade,this is not what bankers do unless they are afraid perhaps very afraid. They are patently afraid of Greece defaulting to my mind.

Spain Ireland and Portugal

We saw rises in ten-year government bond yields for these countries too. Portugal saw a rise to 5.75%, Ireland saw a rise to 5.3% and Spain rose to 4.12%. The spreads over Germany’s equivalent rose to +2.78%, +2.33% and +1.15% respectively. Stock markets fell with Portugal falling by 4.21% Spain falling by 5.41%, and the Athens composite index fell by 6.68%.

You might wonder what caused the Spanish Prime Minister to speak and also probably encourage the IMF to come out and deny there was any aid package planned for Spain as her circumstances are a lot better than her near neighbour Portugal. Inspite of all the failures of this tactic it would appear that at least one politician feels that talk and hyperbole is still an effective weapon.


What I think is really beginning to worry people about Spain is that her banking system may be hitting trouble. I have written over the past few days about problems in the interbank markets as banks are beginning to refuse to deal with other banks which they feel have too much exposure to Greece. Well these sort of rumours are now spreading to the state of Spain’s banks. Why might this be? One factor is that Spain’s banks particularly the local cajas are suffering from quite a lot of non performing loans due mostly to the state of her property market and the fact that she now has a 20% unemployment rate. My understanding is that the Spanish housing market remains under pressure on the back of a persistent supply overhang. There was plenty of borrowing by Spain’s private-sector to help finance this property boom and according to Standard and Poors her level of private-sector indebtedness is 178% of her Gross Domestic Product.

So she is in better shape than Greece for now but if you project her current situation forward she has no great plans to reduce her fiscal deficit and her economy looks like it will struggle to grow. Not an inspiring combination. Last year her fiscal deficit rose by some 7 percentage points compared with the year before to 11.2% so it is showing signs of getting out of control. However her national debt is much lower than Greece’s. So the real issue for now appears to be Spain’s banking sector. Also she now has to raise 9.8 billion Euros to help Greece.

The IMF and Primacy

I returned to this subject on the 16th April as I feel it is an important issue.

1.Primacy. Who is in charge? Will it be the European Commission? the European Central Bank? the IMF?  If you wished to set-up something which was unwieldy and inflexible this is exactly how to do it. The IMF does sometimes co-operate with other institutions but it is used to having primacy and control.

As you can see I was troubled by the prospect of the IMF not being in charge.Well is it? Take a look again at the statement on Monday from the ECB.

The Greek government has approved an economic and financial adjustment programme, which has been negotiated with the European Commission, in liaison with the ECB, and the International Monetary Fund.

So that’s a no then…

Flights to safety

At times like this you get investors looking for what are considered to be safe assets. So one would expect the yields on US Treasury bonds and German bunds to fall and they did. If you look at their ten-year government bonds they both fell by around 0.1% in yield terms. I mention this because in a way this is also a measure of contagion risk as it is a measure of risk aversion and hence that basic human emotion fear.

It is also true that UK government bond yields fell and so there was a perceived flight to quality here too.Markets are not always fully rational when there is fear about and in a sense the rally in UK government bonds only two days before an election that is very much in the balance can be seen as another way of measuring how much fear is about. You see to my mind markets can often be quite irrational when they are afraid.

Also one or two economists seem to be coming to the opinion that the agreement over Greece means that Germany will now be forced to bail out the rest of Europe if necessary and in effect is underwriting their debt. I think that this is the wrong conclusion.


I would like to return to Greece and her aid package and look at it.

The fatal flaw in it was its failure to have any plan for debt restructuring in it. Without it then it is simply not a plan to return Greece to solvency.

Another issue is how exactly will Greece put herself in a position to repay these loans? There is no real answer to this so the begged question that is forming in people’s minds is what will the replacement aid package look like?

Even a bank bailout on this scale has not prevented fears for other banking systems such as Spain’s.

The fall in the Euro’s exchange rate is likely to be welcomed. However think of the second order effect. The biggest beneficiary is likely to be Germany’s exporters and so we get economic divergence again which is where this crisis came in. Supporters of the Euro project still in my mind do not have any answer at all to this problem.

Please remember that markets ebb and flow but that the fundamental issues here do not.

Update 12.10pm

I have written before on the subject of governments issuing short-term paper. I feel that it is an area which is most revealing of perceived prospects for an economy as whilst governments and central banks do not fully control these instruments they do in normal times have “influence” over this end of the yield curve.

Today Portugal has issued 500 million Euros of 6 month Treasury Bills at an average yield of 2.96%. The last time she did this the yield was 0.74% and as recently as the 27th April the yield on a similar bill was 1.83%. I think the numbers speak for themselves.


17 thoughts on “Some advice for Spain and Portugal in this sovereign debt crisis

  1. Whom would a debt restructure punish the most…the banks?Who really engineered the Greek bailout plan? We have to move away from the blame game and come up with plans to deal with debt that shares the pain around.

    Our politicians are pawns of the banks,not our servants.

  2. If we are to see a workable aid plan for not only Greece but the other Mediterranean countries with similar problems we have to think longer term. As short sharp fix isn’t viable so a protracted restructuring is needed and it has to take into account the differences inherent within the EMU membership.

    • As Shaun has stated herein “You see to my mind markets can often be quite irrational when they are afraid.” That is so true and now a part of the problem.

      Andy Symonds, I predicted in a previous comment that there would be riots in the streets in Greece, damage and deaths resulting. That has already happened today with a reported 3 deaths already. The Greek people do not intend to accept such severe austerity evidently.

      The bigger problem I now believe is that these problems could spread, with riots and similar destruction in other EU countries, including Spain, Portugal and even the UK. Once the common people have enjoyed an synthetic Shangri-Lar constructed for them by Socialist politicians from the taxes of others, which then inevitably results in economic collapse, they do not willfully accept the contingent and necessary austerity!

      I still also point out that although there have been words of agreement by EU leaders, there has been little in-the-flesh fiscal provision yet. As a result Greek bond rates have as Shaun has pointed out risen to 3yr/16.48 %. That just exacerbates the Greek problems. The key issue is now therefore exactly what the lead-time to the delivery of real fiscal credit will be, particularly once the result of the German court decision is know?

      The other worrying issue is whether the contagion will spread?

    • Both “the people” and “big business” are used to using the developing world for cheap products, resources and labour. I can see the reactions to sovereign debt working out along the same lines where the providers of debt end up being told they were being exploited too.

      A very just reversal of normal perception that will make “the people” happy for a while until they realise that we are all destined to be third world.

  3. Reports of 3 dead in a bank
    I don’t know how widespread are the riots. There is no reporting from Greek media due to strike (they are also on strike). There was an amateur attempt to storm the parliament from what seems to be simple people.
    I sense that as the markets evaluated the packet and found it wanting, the same happened with the people of Greece. Especially the fact that this austerity measures do not seem to be the end but only the beginning. I am afraid that there will be a part of Greek society that see no other option than to attack the system. Things might get worse as time passes…

    • Just to say Basil that I have just been looking at the scenes on both Sky News and the BBC and whilst they may not be representative of Greece as a whole the fact remains that 3 people are now dead. Petrol bombing is a dangerous game which I think sometimes people do without fully thinking through the possibilities.

  4. I am reading that the opposition New Democracy (ND) party will vote agaisnt the EU/IMF package. The new leader of ND is an american educated economist and dead against IMF. He believes that the package is a bad deal and more likely will make things worse for the economy. Combined with tthe dead and the riots I see rouble, trouble, trouble for the socialists and Andreas Papandreou in the coming days. A revolt from inside the sosialist party is not out of the question.

    • For the protests in Greece, the Greek press is reporting that they were massive, involving in the order of 100,000 people. They tried to storm the parliament and put buildings on fire (including banks and the County building).

      It looks like a legitimation crisis for the political system.


  5. The sad sad loss of life is a game changer. Much of the proposed austerity had not yet had an immediate impact.However the loss of life will force many who have not given serious consideration as to Greece’s future to make a choice between a fresh start (default and reform) or the status quo (austerity and loans).

    Much hinges on the whether the authorities are fairly (or indeed unfairly) implicated in this tragedy.

  6. This is rocking the boat even more. This action is horrible, and not helping Greece at all.

    On the rescue package: I was amazed at the package size as I saw on Dutch news that economists discussed it should be in the order of 150 to 300 Billion and it should be for at least ten years. They were discussing realistic rescue plans. Some claimed the proposed 5% interest was too high as well.

    Furthermore, the competition gap is not being adressed. Even in German newspapers there is critisism at the German method of “wage-dumping” (lohndumping in German). As they claim this is competition to the bottom and making weaker members more vulnarable. And is a form of begger they neighbour in a single currency zone.

    As for me, I’m in LA. As a Dutchmen I am used to save up and than pay for my stuff. The tumbling of the Euro has hit my personal savings as I hold them in Euros on a Dutch bank and pay in Dollars here. The tumbling currency is a culture shock.

    On the other hand Dutch exporters are cheering and celebrating, as they wanted government action since the Euro got above 1.30 as it dampened economic activity. So I’m not ruling out higher than expected export numbers in the foreseeable future.

    It would be ironic that when the people in Greece are made to suffer to pay their bills, their plight would actually help the already stronger members of the union to excelarate the recovery of their own domestic economies. This would just widen the economic gap even further.

    • Hi Johan

      I would just add that the economists in Holland you saw/read seem to me to be trapped in a similar mindset to the politicians. What I mean is that they appear wedded to the idea of an aid package but fail to see that in itself it is not a solution. It is only something which can help a solution. For example if you have more money say 300 billion and or extend the term to ten years you then need to consider exactly how you reverse your plan and have to ask questions as to how exactly it will be repaid. Even though they are right about the interest rate (it is too high) I think that lowering it would help Greece in the shorter term but we still do not have any exit strategy for the longer term.

  7. I’m not sure if we wil get ECB intevtervention just yet, as a lower Euro can help kickstart the Euro economies and even put them in a higher gear. Begger they US-Dollar/Yuan/Pound neighbour style, since most sales are done in Dollars still. This helps the companes which sell in Dollars and pay in Euros a lot on their balance sheet. This accounts for a wide array of companies in Europe involved in automotive, electronics, communications, farmacuticals, aircrafts, machinery, metals, weaponry, etc. This is a huge competitive enhancement for them.

    Luckily, Spain has some dept in its pockets left. Which should buy it time for now. What really needs to be adressed is the competition gap between the South and North of the Euro area. The current crisis is only going to widen it up even further if no effort is made towards the south. A splitting of the Euro area is to difficult right now, and would trigger total chaos. Basically a fatal run on the exit. Therefor it is not a realistic scenario. Somehow, the Euro zone needs to buy time. And convergence needs to be on the agenda of all. If the south makes a real effort to reduce public spending, the North should make a real effort to improve competetiveness in the South. In the end this is the best for all. We cannot have a situation were one region of the union funds the other as is common within nations, simply because we do not have a single bond market and no single tax regime. France as the middle man is pushing both sides now. I am not sure if their ideas are any good, but at least the idea of long term convergence planning is good. A common currency area is still a good idea, but not in the way it operates now. We need to fix it and make it the way it should have been made. If that includes a common bond market, or other structures, they should be on the table. Having weak members which can be picked off is not helpfull for the stronger members either.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s