My thoughts on the IFS Green Budget for the UK

Today we find that the news flow has crossed one of the major themes that I have established on here. It is something we looked at yesterday as we mulled the debt and deficit issues in Japan where the new “consensus” on public finances has been met by Japan doing the reverse. So let me take you to the headlines from the Institute for Fiscal Studies for the UK.

A decade after the financial crisis, the deficit has been returned to normal levels, but debt is at a historical high. The latest estimate for borrowing in 2018–19, at 1.9%
of national income, is at its long-run historical average. However, higher borrowing during the crisis and since has left a mark on debt, which stood at 82% of national
income, more than twice its pre-crisis level.

There are several issues already of which the first is the use of “national income” as they switch to GDP later. Next concepts such as the one below are frankly quite meaningless in the credit crunch era as so much has changed.

at its long-run historical average

This issue gets worse if we switch from the numbers above which are a very UK style way oh looking at things and use more of an international standard.

general government deficit (or net borrowing) was £41.5 billion in the FYE March 2019, equivalent to 1.9% of GDP

general government gross debt was £1,821.9 billion at the end of the FYE March 2019, equivalent to 85.3% of GDP…  ( UK ONS)

As you can see the deficit is the same but the national debt is higher. In terms of the Maastricht Stability and Growth Pact we are within the fiscal deficit limit by 1.1% but 25.3% over the national debt to GDP target.

What will happen next?

The IFS thinks this.

Given welcome changes to student loan accounting, the spending increases announced at the September Spending Round, and a likely growth downgrade (even assuming a smooth Brexit), borrowing in 2019–20 could be around
£55 billion, and still at £52 billion next year. Those figures are respectively £26 billion and £31 billion more than the OBR’s March 2019 forecast. Both exceed 2% of national

It is hard not to have a wry smile at the way my first rule of OBR ( Office for Budget Responsibility) Club which is that it is always wrong! You will not get that from the IFS which lives in an illusion where the forecasts are not unlike a Holy Grail. Next comes the way that the changes to student loans are used to raise the number. If we step back we are in fact acknowledging reality as there was an issue here all along it is just that we are measuring it now. So it is something we should welcome and not worry too much about. This year has seen growth downgrades in lots of countries and locales as we have seen this morning from the Bank of Italy but of course the IFS are entitled to their view on the consequences of any Brexit.

Next the IFS which has in general given the impression of being in favour of more government spending seems maybe not so sure.

A fiscal giveaway beyond the one announced in the September Spending Round could increase borrowing above its historical average over the next five years.
With a permanent fiscal giveaway of 1% of national income (£22 billion in today’s terms), borrowing would reach a peak of 2.8% of GDP in 2022–23 under a smooth-Brexit
scenario, and headline debt would no longer be falling.

Actually assuming they are correct which on the track record of such forecasts is unlikely then we would for example still be within the Maastricht rules albeit only just. You may note that a swerve has been slipped in which is this.

headline debt would no longer be falling

As an absolute amount it is not falling but relatively it has been as this from the latest official Public Finances bulletin tells us.

Debt (public sector net debt excluding public sector banks, PSND ex) at the end of August 2019 was £1,779.9 billion (or 80.9% of gross domestic product, GDP), an increase of £24.5 billion (or a decrease of 1.5 percentage points of GDP) on August 2018.

Next if we use the IFS view on Brexit then this is the view and I note we have switched away from GDP to national income as it continues a type of hokey-cokey in this area.

Even under a relatively orderly no-deal scenario, and with a permanent fiscal loosening of 1% of national income, the deficit would likely rise to over 4% of national income in 2021–22 and debt would climb to almost 90% of national income for the first time since the mid 1960s. Some fiscal tightening – that is, more austerity – would likely be required in subsequent years in order to keep debt on a sustainable path.

The keep debt on a sustainable path is at best a dubious statement so let me explain why.

It is so cheap to borrow

As we stand the UK fifty-year Gilt yield is 0.85% and the ten-year is 0.44% and in this “new world” the analysis above simply does not stand up. Actually if we go to page six of the report it does cover it.

Despite this doubling of net debt, the government’s debt interest bill has remained flat in real terms as the recorded cost of government borrowing has fallen. As shown in Figure 4.3, in 2018–19, when public sector net debt exceeded 80% of national income, spending on debt interest was 1.8% of national income, or £37.5 billion in nominal terms. Compare this with 2007–08, when public sector net debt was below 40% of national income but spending on debt interest was actually higher as a share of national income, at 2.0%.

As you can see we are in fact paying less as in spite of the higher volume of debt it is so cheap to run. Assuming Gilt yields stay at these sort of levels that trend will continue because as each Gilt matures it will be refinanced more cheaply. Let me give you an example of this as on the 7th of last month a UK Gilt worth just under £29 billion matured and it had a coupon or interest-rate of 3.5%. That will likely be replaced by something yielding more like 0.5% so in round numbers we save £870 million a year. A back of an envelope calculation but you get the idea of a process that has been happening for some years. It takes place in chunks as there was one in July but the next is not due until March.

The role of the Bank of England

Next comes the role of the Bank of England which has bought some £435 billion of UK debt which means as we stand it is effectively interest-free. To be more specific it gets paid the debt interest and later refunds it to HM Treasury. As the amount looks ever more permanent I think we need to look at an analysis of what difference that makes. Because as I look at the world the amount of QE bond buying only seems to increase as the one country that tried to reverse course the United States seems set to rub that out and the Euro area has announced a restart of it.

Indeed there are roads forwards where the Bank of England will engage in more QE and make that debt effectively free as well.

There are two nuances to this. If we start with the “QE to infinity” theme I do nor agree with it but it does look the most likely reality. Also the way this is expressed in the public finances is a shambles as only what is called “entrepreneurial income” is counted and those of you who recall my £2 billion challenge to the July numbers may like to know that our official statisticians have failed to come up with any answer to my enquiry.


I have covered a fair bit of ground today. But a fundamental point is that the way we look at the national debt needs to change with reality and not stay plugged in 2010. Do I think we can borrow for ever? No. But it is also true that with yields at such levels we can borrow very cheaply and if we look around the world seem set to do so. I have written before that we should be taking as much advantage of this as we can.

Gilt yields may get even lower and head to zero but I have seen them at 15% and compared to that we are far from the literal middle of the road but in line with their biggest hit.

Ooh wee, chirpy chirpy cheep cheep
Chirpy chirpy cheep cheep chirp

The caveat here is that I have ignored our index-linked borrowing but let me offer some advice on this too. At these levels for conventional yields I see little or no point in running the risk of issuing index-linked Gilts.

9 thoughts on “My thoughts on the IFS Green Budget for the UK

  1. If Bank Rate is the tool for the Central Bank’s monetary policy transmission mechanism into the real economy, it stands to reason that the interest rate required to achieve any particular change will fall as debts rise. This is true in terms of the total rate and the increments (over the last decades we have since Bank Rate changes fall markedly – and well below the financial crisis to just 25bp or even 10 bp in the Euro area). This assumes you are borrowing in your own currency, that you can print to stave off default and such that the credit risk component of interest rates is negligible.

    I would strongly argue that just because interest rates may be negative, borrowing is not the free lunch one might think it is. Capitalism has served us very well – a shortage of money has helped us to guide real world resources to the best, most fruitful projects on the accountant’s spreadhseet. Capitalism, by its very definition, requires an interest rate and effective banks intermediating the process of economic decision making. You may have noticed that banks now fail to lend to small and medium sized enterprises (unless they have property collateral) and have largely turned to the rentierism of mortgage lending or gouging with fees. Further, banks are now painfully weak and taking on more risk where they can avoid the regulator’s gaze.

    Of course, aside from the private banks, the pension funds are suffering – how do you save for retirement on negative yields across the piece? Or even, how do you afford a house of your own as assets continue to go to the moon?

    My preference would be for the world to concertedly go in the opposite direction than the failed policies of the last several decades. We need to repay the huge debts across the piece to restore Bank Rate and capitalism. How? Post second world war levels of taxation. Primarily through levying Wealth Taxes including on Land to repay the debts and to reduce asset prices. The level of hurt depends on speed of implementation.

    In essence, I suspect that spending more through fiscal policy will not return us to a normal world. Yes, it may well cause a squeeze on resources and cause wages and general inflation to rise but that is not the same as achieving the same through reducing debts by essentially taxing the asset gains of the last decades. Such an approach may cause rates to rise (it may not due to globalisation’s effects on wages) but that could suddenly have a debilitating effect on debts built up and could lead to financial instability once it starts. It’s a risk not worth taking in short.

    • “Primarily through levying Wealth Taxes including on Land to repay the debts ”

      the Duke of Westminster will not be happy with you 😉


    • I believe you have the right answer but for the wrong reasons. As I have repeatedly mentioned the basic problem is too much saving; hence driving down interest rates. It is too complicated to explain all the reasons for the excess of saving but one is the very success of capitalism. As you suggested the answer is to tax the savers and to discourage saving; not subsidise it as we do now!. This may seem a little counter-intuitive but we have never lived in an economy of super-abumdance (relatively) before.

  2. So the government will be now officially following the policy of the masses who got us into this mess by over borrowing to buy into a property bubble, the government is now using the artificially low rates created by the Bank of England creating money out of thin air to buy gilts and depress their yields lower with every purchase, this is a process that cannot continue as eventually it leads to the collapse of the currency, followers of my rants on the depreciation of sterling over the years will be familiar with this theme, but now we are entering the endgame. Unless the UK government and the Bank of England come to their senses and raise rates(how likely do you think that is???)sterling as I have predicted many times on here over the years, is finished.

    Of course, when QE is re-started, it will be announced with all the gravitas, authority and reasoned economic arguments from Carney and his successor, just like it was when it was first announced ten years ago as being an emergency measure and would only be temporary.

    They lied then and they are lying now, and they will be lying when they announce the reasons for the next rounds of QE. It will be cheered by the media presstitutes, expect such terms as “a brave move”, “an intelligent response…”, “part of Modern Monetary Theory…”, and of course “temporary” again.

    There is always a price for inflating the money supply -loss of purchasing power and in our case it will be so extreme it will result in the collapse of sterling, and that will be exactly timed by our masters to coincide with our new terms of membership of the EU and/or acceptance of the Euro as our new currency, of course the ECB is going to be ahead of us in the QE game and has already got negative rates in many countries, but the Euro is immune to the same forces that apply to sterling, but that is not surprising since the EU and the Euro are being used by the madmen that run the world to pummel countries such as ours into submission, so expect the Euro to continue to soar against the pound as the BREXIT crisis rumbles on and QE is resumed by the bank of England. How long before my summer target of EUR.GBP 0.93 is tested again?

    PS The Woodford Patient still in intensive care, hanging on to support at 38p by its fingernails, if that breaks my previous target of 29p is in play.

    • Hi Kevin

      It is sad to see Woodfood Funds in such a poor shape as there was a time it had a good name.As to the QE currency depreciation game then the £ is far from the only game in town as an hour or two ago Jerome Powell of the US Federal Reserve told us this.

      “Hence, increasing the supply of reserves or even maintaining a given level over time requires us to increase the size of our balance sheet. As we indicated in our March statement on balance sheet normalization, at some point, we will begin increasing our securities holdings to maintain an appropriate level of reserves.18 That time is now upon us.”

      It is not Treasury Bond style QE but short-dated Treasury Bills will be bought in return for cash. We even got an official denial.

      “I want to emphasize that growth of our balance sheet for reserve management purposes should in no way be confused with the large-scale asset purchase programs that we deployed after the financial crisis”

      He will go back to President Trump and tell him he is doing his bit to lower the US Dollar as the game of pass the parcel continues….

      • Hi Shaun,
        Yes they are going to buy around $40bn a month of short dated treasuries, the freeze up in the Repo had more influence in forcing their hand than trying to comply with Kommisar Trump’s Twitter commands to weaken the $ methinks!
        But as we know, once they have started, they can now never stop, and from here the amounts will just get bigger and bigger.

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