UK real wages resume their fall

This morning brings us to the UK labour market data and if it feels early you are right. You see the UK statistics bodies decided that our Members of Parliament needed more time to digest the numbers before Prime Ministers Questions on a Wednesday lunchtime. It is not that big a deal except perhaps for confidence in the mathematical ability of our MPs.

In terms of expectations the mood music for wages has been positive with the latest survey from Markit/REC leading the way.

Strong demand for staff and low candidate
availability underpinned further increases in starting salaries and temp pay. Notably, salaries awarded to successfully placed permanent workers rose at the
steepest rate for three years.

This was driven by this.

Growth of demand for staff strengthened to a sixmonth
high in May, with sharp increases in both
permanent and temporary roles signalled by the
latest data.

So according to them there was more demand for staff which ran into shortages.

Overall, candidate availability declined at a sharper
rate midway through the second quarter. Permanent
candidate numbers fell at the fastest rate for four
months, while short-term staff availability
deteriorated at the quickest pace since last
November

Hence the higher pay albeit that beating the last 3 years is not spectacular but it is an improvement. Of course after yesterday’s data we are likely to be more sceptical about surveys from Markit as I note that it contradicts that release in a coupe of ways. Firstly this.

Although growth of demand for both permanent and
temporary staff in the private sector edged down
slightly since April,

It seems unlikely that manufacturers were looking for extra staff in April after the decline in production but let us be optimistic for now and hope that there was a surge in May leading to this.

Engineering was the best performing sector in the
demand for permanent staff league table during May.

Retail

Even the Markit/REC report pointed out the signs of trouble here.

with the exception of Retail, which registered a further
decline.

Indeed this seemed to be on the march again only yesterday.

Discount retailer Poundworld has appointed administrators, putting 5,100 jobs at risk.

The move came after talks with a potential buyer, R Capital, collapsed leaving Poundworld with no option other than administration. ( BBC)

This morning brought news of a major factor driving this as the high street New Look fashion store had very weak figures and the online Boohoo very good ones. But even if we add in the job gains as for example Amazon announcing 2500 new jobs recently to deliver all this online business this is a sector with falling employment overall.

Today’s data

Let us start with wages.

Between February to April 2017 and February to April 2018, in nominal terms, total pay increased by 2.5%, slightly lower than the growth rate between January to March 2017 and January to March 2018 (2.6%).

That is not inspiring for the survey we looked at earlier although there is some better news if we look into the detail. This is because total wage growth was revised up to 2.5% in March which April matched. So the numbers are now holding on a monthly basis at a higher level than we though last month but they are not rising.

As ever many prefer to cherry pick the data as for example the BBC is using a sub set of the numbers.

Between February to April 2017 and February to April 2018, in nominal terms, regular pay increased by 2.8%, slightly lower than the growth rate between January to March 2017 and January to March 2018 (2.9%).

This poses a problem as bonus pay matters to many so why does it get ignored? For example if you get the number quoted for average regular pay of £484 per week would you ignore the £32 of bonuses? At a time of pressure on real wages surely bonuses are more important.

If we stick with cherry pickers it was a dreadful month for the Bank of England as it has guided us towards private-sector regular wages which rose by 3.2% in March and 2.5% in April! Ooops and time for that to be redacted and replaced by a new measure like the unemployment rate was in the first phase of Forward Guidance. On a 3 monthly comparison it only falls from 3% to 2.9% but the catch is that April will be in the next two versions of that.

Moving to real wages we see sadly yet more cherry-picking. From the official release.

Between February to April 2017 and February to April 2018, in real terms (that is, adjusted for consumer price inflation), regular pay for employees in Great Britain increased by 0.4% and total pay for employees in Great Britain increased by 0.1%.

They use the woeful CPIH for this which assumes that owner occupiers rent their property to themselves when they do not. Whereas if they used the CPI for example as the casual reader might assume then real wages fell by 0.1% if compared to total pay. Fan of the Retail Price Index or RPI will continue to see falling real wages.

This is a familiar issue and seems to be something of a never-ending story.

Employment and Unemployment

The number below continues to be rather stellar.

There were 32.39 million people in work, 146,000 more than for November 2017 to January 2018 and 440,000 more than for a year earlier.

This does confirm at least part of the recruiters survey above. Let me just point out for newer readers that this is a quantity measure not a quality one and we have already had an issue with the quality number called wages. As another example the definition of full-time employment is of the chocolate teapot variety in my opinion. We may be getting a hint of an issue here from this alternative measure.

but total hours worked decreased by 4.1 million to 1.03 billion. (the number of people in employment increased by 146,000)

Maybe this was an impact of the cold snap we got in February/March but it is a rare sign of weakness in these section of data as hours worked per full-time employee fell.

Meanwhile there was more good news on unemployment

There were 1.42 million unemployed people (people not in work but seeking and available to work), 38,000 fewer than for November 2017 to January 2018 and 115,000 fewer than for a year earlier.

We have had loads of forecasts that unemployment will rise in the UK and even sectoral examples of it ( Retail) but overall it continues to fall even though it includes the recent weaker period if we look at the GDP numbers.

Also I get asked on here from time to time about the residual sector in these numbers which has been improving too.

The inactivity rate (the proportion of people aged from 16 to 64 years who were economically inactive) was 21.0%, lower than for a year earlier (21.5%) and the joint lowest since comparable records began in 1971.

Comment

Let me open with  piece of good news which is that it looks like UK productivity is currently improving as we may not have had much economic growth in 2018 but it is divided by a falling number of hours worked.

That is something although if we switch to the Ivory Towers things are going from bad to worse. After all the Office for Budget Responsibility switched about 9 months ago to projecting weaker productivity growth. That is before we get to the output gap theories it and the Bank of England hold so dear. As unemployment falls below what the Bank of England considers to be the equilibrium rate wages should be soaring except when you climb out of its dark,dank and dusty bunker they are not growing at the 5% per annum suggested by the OBR back in the day.  Forward Guidance and all that.

Let me finish by pointing out that rather shamefully the self-employed are excluded from the average earnings data. The numbers need some Coldpaly.

Lights will guide you home
And ignite your bones
And I will try to fix you

 

 

 

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The UK joins France and Germany with falling production in April

Today brings us a raft of new detail on the UK economy and as it is for April we get the beginnings of some insight as to whether the UK economy picked up after the malaise of only 0.1% GDP ( Gross Domestic Product) growth in the first quarter of this year. According to Markit PMI business survey we have in the first two months of this quarter but of course surveys are one thing and official data is another.

So far, the three PMI surveys indicate that GDP looks set to rise by 0.3-0.4% in the second quarter.

As for the manufacturing sector the same set of surveys has told us this.

The seasonally adjusted IHS Markit/CIPS Purchasing Managers’ Index® (PMI®
) rose to 54.4, up slightly from April’s
17-month low of 53.9, to signal growth for the
twenty-second straight month.

So we see that April can be looked at almost any way you like. Manufacturing has been in a better phase for a while now partly in response to the post EU leave vote fall in the UK Pound £. According to the survey we are still growing but April was the weakest month in this phase although some caution is required as I doubt whether a survey that can be in the wrong direction is accurate to anything like 0.5.

Of course the attention of Mark Carney and the Bank of England will be on a sector that it considers as and maybe more vital. From the Local Government Association.

Councils’ ability to replace homes sold under Right to Buy (RTB) will be all but eliminated within five years without major reform of the scheme, new analysis from the Local Government association reveals today.

The detail of the numbers is below.

The LGA said that, in the last six years, more than 60,000 homes have been sold off under the scheme at a price which is, on average, half the market rate, leaving councils with enough funding to build or buy just 14,000 new homes to replace them.

We sometimes discuss on here that the ultimate end of the house price friendly policies of the UK establishment will be to give people money to buy houses. Well in many ways Right To Buy does just that as those who have qualified buy on average at half-price. Also we see that one of the other supposed aims of the scheme which was to replace the property sold with new builds is failing. I guess we should not be surprised as pretty much every government plan for new builds fails.

Production and Manufacturing

These were poor numbers as you can see below.

In April 2018, total production was estimated to have decreased by 0.8% compared with March 2018, led by a fall of 1.4% in manufacturing and supported by falls in energy supply (2.0%), and water and waste (1.8%).

The fall in energy supply is predictable after the cold weather of March but the manufacturing drop much less so. If we review the Markit survey it was right about a decline but in predicting growth had the direction wrong. On a monthly basis the manufacturing fall was highest in metal products and machinery which both fell by more than 3% but the falls were widespread.

with 9 of the 13 sub-sectors falling;

If we step back to the quarterly data we see that it has seen better times as well.

In the three months to April 2018, the Index of Production increased by 0.3% compared with the three months to January 2018, due primarily to a rise of 3.2% in energy supply; this was supported by a rise in mining and quarrying of 4.3%………..The three-monthly fall to April 2018 in manufacturing of 0.5% is the largest fall since May 2017, due mainly to decreases in electrical equipment (9.4%), and basic metals and metal products (1.8%).

So on a quarterly basis we have some production growth but not much whereas manufacturing which was recently a star of our economy has lost its shine and declined. There has been a drop in trade which has impacted here.

The fall in manufacturing is supported by widespread weakness throughout the sector due to a reduction in the growth rate of both export and domestic turnover.

Actually for once the production and trade figures seem to be in concert.

Goods exports fell £3.1 billion, due mainly to falls in exports of machinery, pharmaceuticals and aircraft, while services exports also fell £2.5 billion in the three months to April 2018…….Falling volumes was the main reason for the declines in exports of machinery, pharmaceuticals and aircraft in the three months to April 2018 as price movements were relatively small.

That is welcome although the cause is not! But we see a signs of a slowing from the better trend which still looks good on an annual comparison.

In the three months to April 2018, the Index of Production increased by 2.3% compared with the same three months to April 2017, due mainly to a rise of 2.3% in manufacturing.

If we compare ourselves to France we see that it’s manufacturing production rose by 1.9% over the same period. However whilst we are ahead it is clear that our trajectory is worsening and we look set to be behind unless there is quite a swing in May. As to the Markit manufacturing PMI then its performance in the latest quarter has been so poor it has been in the wrong direction.

As we move on let me leave you with this as a possible factor at play in April.

 It should also be noted that survey response was comparatively high this month and notable weakness was due mainly to the cumulative impact of large businesses reporting decreased turnover.

Trade

We have already looked at the decline in good exports but in a way this was even more troubling.

 services exports also fell £2.5 billion in the three months to April 2018.

Regular readers will be aware that I have a theme that considering how important the services sector is to the UK economy we have very little detail about its impact on trade. As an example a 28 page statistical bulletin I read had only one page on services. I am reminded of this as this latest fall comes after our statisticians had upgraded the numbers as you see the numbers are mostly estimates.

So not a good April but the annual picture remains better.

The UK total trade deficit (goods and services) narrowed £6.7 billion to £30.8 billion in the 12 months to April 2018. An improvement to the trade in services balance was the main factor, as the trade surplus the UK has in services widened £9.9 billion to £108.7 billion. The trade in goods deficit worsened, widening £3.2 billion to £139.5 billion over the same period.

Construction

This was yet again a wild card if consistency can be that.

Construction output continued its recent decline in the three-month on three-month series, falling by 3.4% in April 2018; the biggest fall seen in this series since August 2012.

The consistency comes from yet another fall whereas the wild card element is that it got worse on this measure in spite of a small increase in April

Comment

There is a lot to consider here today but let us start with manufacturing where there are three factors at play. The money supply numbers have suggested a slow down and it would seem that they have been accurate. Next we have the issue that exports are weak and of course this is into a Euro area economy which is also slowing as for example industrial production fell by 0.5% in France and 1% in Germany in April on a monthly basis. Some are suggesting it is an early example of the UK being dropped out of European supply chains but I suspect it is a bit early for that.

Moving to construction we see that it is locked in the grip of an icy recession even in the spring. It seems hard to square with the 32 cranes between Battersea Dogs Home and Vauxhall but there you have it. I guess the failure of Carillion has had quite an effect and linking today’s stories we could of course build more social housing.

Looking forwards the UK seems as so often is the case heavily reliant on its services sector to do the economic heavy lifting, so fingers crossed.

 

 

Are interest-rates on the rise now?

As we find ourselves heading into the second decade of the credit crunch era we find ourselves observing an interest-rate environment that few expected when it began. At the time the interest-rate cuts ( for example circa 4% in the UK) were considered extraordinary but the Ivory Towers would have been confident. After all they had been busy telling us that the lower bound for interest-rates was 0% and many were nearly there. Sadly for the Ivory Towers the walls then came tumbling down as Denmark, the Euro area , Sweden, Switzerland and Japan all entered the world of negative official interest-rates.

Even that was not enough for some and central banks also entered into sovereign and then other bond purchases to basically reduce the other interest-rates or yields they could find. Such QE ( Quantitative Easing) purchases reduced sovereign bond yields and debt costs which made politicians very happy especially when they like some official interest-rates went negative. When that did not work either we saw what became called credit easing where direct efforts went into reducing specific interest-rates, In the UK this was called the Funding for Lending Scheme which was supposed to reduce the cost of business lending but somehow found that  instead in the manner of the Infinite Improbability Drive in the Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy  it reduced mortgage interest-rates initially by around 1% when I checked them and later the Bank of England claimed that some fell by 2%.

What next?

Yesterday brought a reminder that not everywhere is like this so let me hand you over to the Reserve Bank of India.

On the basis of an assessment of the current and evolving macroeconomic situation at its
meeting today, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) decided to:
• increase the policy repo rate under the liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) by 25 basis
points to 6.25 per cent.
Consequently, the reverse repo rate under the LAF stands adjusted to 6.0 per cent, and the
marginal standing facility (MSF) rate and the Bank Rate to 6.50 per cent.

There are two clear differences with life in Europe and the first is a rise in interest-rates with the second being that interest-rates are at or above 6% in India. It feels like another universe rather than being on the sub-continent but it does cover some 1.3 billion people. Sometimes we over emphasise the importance of Europe. As to why it raised interest-rates the RBI feels that the economy is going well and that inflation expectations are rising as domestic inflation ( official rents) has risen as well as the oil price.

The US

This has moved away from zero interest-rates and now we face this.

to maintain the federal funds rate in a target range of
1½ to 1¾ percent

It seems set to raise interest-rates again next week by another 0.25% which has provoked Reuters to tell us this.

With inflation still tame, policymakers are aiming for a “neutral” rate that neither slows nor speeds economic growth. But estimates of neutral are imprecise, and as interest rates top inflation and enter positive “real” territory, analysts feel the Fed is at higher risk of going too far and actually crimping the recovery.

Personally I think that they do not understand real interest-rates which are forwards looking. So rather than last months print you should look forwards and if you do then there are factors which look likely to drive it higher. The most obvious is the price of crude oil which if we look at the West Texas Intermediate benchmark is at US $65 per barrel around 35% higher than a year ago. But last month housing or what the US callers shelter inflation was strong too so there seems to be upwards pressure that might make you use more like 2.5% as your inflation forecast for real interest-rates. So on that basis there is scope for several more 0.25% rises before real interest-rates become positive.

One point to make clear is that the US has two different measures of inflation you might use. I have used the one that has the widest publicity or CPI Urban ( yep if you live in the country you get ignored…) but the US Federal Reserve uses one based on Personal Consumption Expenditures or PCE. The latter does not have a fixed relationship with the former but it usually around 0.4% lower. Please do not shoot the piano player as Elton John reminded us.

If we move to bond yields the picture is a little different. The ten-year seems to have settled around 3% or so ( 2.99% as I type this) giving us an estimated cap for official interest-rates. Of course the picture is made more complex by the advent of Quantitative Tightening albeit it is so far on a relatively minor scale.

The Euro area

Here we are finding that the official line has changed as we await next week’s ECB meeting. From Reuters.

Money market investors are now pricing in a roughly 90 percent chance that the European Central Bank will raise interest rates in July 2019, following hawkish comments from the bank’s chief economist on Wednesday.

In terms of language markets are responding to this from Peter Praet yesterday.

Signals showing the convergence of inflation towards our aim have been improving, and both the underlying strength in the euro area economy and the fact that such strength is increasingly affecting wage formation supports our confidence that inflation will reach a level of below, but close to, 2% over the medium term.

For newer readers he is saying that in ECB terms nirvana is near and so it will then reduce policy accommodation which is taken to mean ending monthly QE and then after a delay raising interest-rates.

So it could be a present from Mario Draghi to his successor or of course if he fails to find the switch a job he could pass on without ever raising interest-rates in his eight years as President.

Comment

Before I give my opinion let me give you a deeper perspective on what has been in some cases all in others some of our lives.

Since 1980, long-term interest rates have declined by about 860 basis points in the United States, 790 basis points in Germany and more than 1,200 basis points in France. ( Peter Praet yesterday)

On this scale even the interest-rate rises likely in the United States seem rather small potatoes. But to answer the question in my title I am expecting them to reach 2% and probably pass it. Once we move to Europe the picture gets more complex as I note this from the speech of Peter Praet.

the underlying strength in the euro area economy

This is not what it was as we observe the 0.4% quarterly growth rate in Euro area GDP confirmed this morning or the monthly and annual fall in manufacturing orders for Germany in April. Looking ahead we know that narrow money growth has also been weakening. Thus the forecasts for an interest-rate rise next June seem to be a bit like the ones for the UK this May to me.

Looking at the UK I expect that whilst Mark Carney is Bank of England Governor we will be always expecting rises which turn out to be a mirage. Unless of course something happens to force his hand.

On a longer perspective I do think the winds of change are blowing in favour of higher interest-rates but it will take time as central bankers have really over committed the other way and are terrified of raising and then seeing an economic slow down. That would run the risk of looking like an Emperor or Empress with no clothes.

 

 

 

 

Japan is a land of high employment but still no real wage growth

Some days quite a few of our themes come naturally together and this morning quite a few strands have been pulled together by the news from Nihon the land of the rising sun. Here is NHK News on the subject.

Workers in Japan are continuing to take home bigger paychecks. A government survey says monthly wages rose year-on-year for the 9th-straight month in April.

Preliminary results show that pay for the month averaged about 277,000 yen, or roughly 2,500 dollars. That includes overtime and bonuses.

The number is an increase of 0.8 percent in yen terms from a year earlier. But when adjusted for inflation, the figure came in flat.

Nonetheless, labor ministry officials say that wages are continuing on a trend of moderate gains.

As you can see this is rather familiar where there is some wage growth in Japan but once we allow for inflation that fades away and often disappears. This is a particular disappointment after the better numbers for March which were themselves revised down as Reuters explains below.

That follows a downwardly revised 0.7 percent annual increase in real wages in March, which suggests that the government’s repeated efforts to encourage private-sector wage gains have fallen flat.

Growth in March was the first in four months, which had fueled optimism that a gradual rise in workers’ salaries would stimulate consumer spending in Japan.

Actually Reuters then comes up with what might be one of the understatements of 2018 so far.

The data could be discouraging for the Bank of Japan as it struggles to accelerate inflation to its 2 percent price target.

Let us now step back and take a deeper perspective and review this century. According to Japan Macro Advisers real wages began this century at 114.1 in January 2000 and you already get an idea of this part of the “lost decade” problem by noting that it is based at 100 some fifteen years later in 2015. As of the latest data it is at 100.5 so it has been on a road to nowhere.

Abenomics

One of the features of the Abenomics programme which began in December 2012 was supposed to be a boost to wages. The Bank of Japan has launched ever more QE ( which it calls QQE in the same way that the leaky Windscale nuclear reprocessing plant became the leak-free Sellafield) as shown below. From July 2016.

The Bank will purchase Japanese government bonds (JGBs) so that their amount outstanding will increase at an annual pace of about 80 trillion yen.

This is the main effort although as I have noted in my articles on the Tokyo Whale it has acquired quite an appetite for equities as well.

The Bank will purchase ETFs so that their amount outstanding will increase at an annual
pace of about 6 trillion yen(almost double the previous pace of about 3.3 trillion yen)

As it likes to buy on dips the recent Italian crisis will have seen it buying again and as of the end of March the Nikkei Asian Review was reporting this.

The central bank’s ETF holdings have reached an estimated 23 trillion yen based on current market value — equivalent to more than 3% of the total market capitalization of the Tokyo Stock Exchange’s first section — raising concerns about pricing distortions.

So not the reduction some were telling us was on the way but my main point today was that all of this “strong monetary easing” was supposed to achieve this and it hasn’t.

The Bank will continue with “QQE with a Negative Interest Rate,” aiming to achieve the price stability target of 2 percent, as long as it is necessary for maintaining that target in a stable manner.

The clear implication was that wages would rise faster than that. It is often forgotten that the advocates of QE thought that as prices rose in response to it then wages would rise faster. But that Ivory Tower world did not turn up as the inflation went into asset prices such as bonds,equities and houses meaning that wages were not in the cycle. Or as Bank of Japan Governor Kuroda put it at the end of last month.

Despite these improvements in the real economy, prices and wages have remained sluggish. This phenomenon has recently been labeled the “missing inflation” or “missing wage inflation” puzzle………. It is urgent that we explore the mechanism behind the changes in price and wage dynamics especially in advanced economies.

Most people would think it sensible to do the research before you launch at and in financial markets in such a kamikaze fashion.

The economy

There are different ways of looking at this. Here is the economic output position.

The economy shrank by 0.6 percent on an annualized basis, a much more severe contraction than the median estimate for an annualized 0.2 percent.

Fourth quarter growth was revised to an annualized 0.6 percent, down from the 1.6 percent estimated earlier. ( Reuters)

Imagine if that had been the UK we would have seen social media implode! As we note that over the past 6 months there has been no growth at all. In case you are wondering about the large revision those are a feature of the official GDP statistics in Japan which reverse the stereotype about Japan by being especially unreliable.

If we move to the labour market we get a different view. Here we see an extraordinary low-level of unemployment with the rate being a mere 2.5% and the job situation is summed up by this from Japan Macro Advisers.

In March 2018, New job offers to applicant ratio, a key indicator in Japan to measure the tightness of the labor demand/supply was 2.41 in March, signifying that there are 2.41 new job postings for each new job seeker. The ratio of 2.41 is the highest in the statistical history since it begun in 1963.

So the picture is confused to say the least.

Comment

There is a fair bit to consider here but let us start with the reality that whilst there are occasional flickers of growth so far the overall pattern in Japan is for no real wage growth. Only yesterday we were looking at yet another Bank of England policymaker telling us that wage growth was just around the corner based on a Phillips Curve style analysis. We know that the Bank of England Ivory Tower has an unemployment rate of 4,25% as the natural one so that the 2.5% of Japan would see Silvana Tenreyro confidently predicting a wages surge. Except reality is very different. If we stick to the UK perspective we often see reports we are near the bottom of the real wage pack but some cherry picking of dates when in fact Japan is  worse.

Moving back to Japan there was a paper on the subject of low unemployment in 1988 from Uwe Vollmer which told us this.

Even more important, the division of annual labour income
into basic wages, overtime premiums and bonuses
allows companies to adjust wages flexibly to changes in
macroeconomic supply and demand conditions,
resulting in low rigidities of both nominal and real wages.

On the downside yes on the upside no as we mull the idea that in the lost decade period Japan has priced itself into work? If so the Abenomics policy of a lower exchange-rate may help with that but any consequent rise in inflation will make the Japanese worker and consumer worse off if wages continue their upwards rigidity.

Meanwhile as we note a year where the Yen was 110 or so a year ago and 110 now there is this from an alternative universe.

The Bank of Japan’s next policy move may be to raise its bond-yield target to keep the yen from weakening too much, according to a BOJ adviser and longtime associate of Gov. Haruhiko Kuroda.

Or maybe not.

With its inflation target still far away, the BOJ must continue its current monetary stimulus for now, Kawai said

Also in his land of confusion is a confession that my critique has been correct all along.

While a weak yen helps the BOJ’s efforts to stoke inflation — and has been an unspoken policy objective — too much weakness can hurt businesses that import raw materials, while some consumers would feel the pain of higher prices for imports.

He seems lost somewhere in the Pacific as in terms of the economics the economy has seen a weak patch and you are as far away as ever from your inflation target yet you do less? Still the inflation target will be helped by a higher oil price except as I often point out Japan is a large energy importer so this is a negative even before we get to the fact that it makes workers and consumers poorer.

 

 

 

The Bank of England seems determined to ignore the higher oil price

This morning has brought the policies of the Bank of England into focus as this from the BBC demonstrates.

Petrol prices rose by 6p a litre in May – the biggest monthly increase since the RAC began tracking prices 18 years ago.

Average petrol prices hit 129.4p a litre, while average diesel prices also rose by 6p to 132.3p a litre.

The RAC said a “punitive combination” of higher crude oil prices and a weaker pound was to blame for the increases.

It pointed out that oil prices broke through the $80-a-barrel mark twice in May – a three-and-a-half year high.

As well as the higher global market price of crude, the pound’s current weakness against the US dollar also makes petrol more expensive as oil is traded in dollars.

There is little or nothing that could have been done about the rising price of crude oil but there is something that could have been done about the “pound’s current weakness against the US dollar”. In fact it is worse than that if we look back to April 20th.

The governor of the Bank of England has said that an interest rate rise is “likely” this year, but any increases will be gradual.

This was quite an unreliable boyfriend style reversal on the previous forward guidance towards a Bank Rate rise in May that the Financial Times thought was something of a triumph. But the crucial point here is that the UK Pound £ was US $1.42 the day before Mark Carney spoke as opposed to US $1.33. Some of that is the result of what we call the King Dollar but Governor Carney gave things a shove. After all we used to move with the US Dollar much more than we have partly because our monetary policy was more aligned with its. Or to be precise only cuts in interest-rates seem likely to be aligned with the US under the stewardship of Governor Carney.

Just as a reminder UK inflation remains above target where it has been for a while.

The Consumer Prices Index (CPI) 12-month rate was 2.4% in April 2018, down from 2.5% in March 2018.

The welcome fall in inflation due to the rally in the UK Pound £ has been torpedoed by the unreliable boyfriend and a specific example of this is shown below.

Let us give the BBC some credit for releasing those although the analysis by its economics editor Kamal Ahmed ignores the role of the Bank of England.

Silvana Tenreyro

Silvana in case you are unaware is a member of the Monetary Policy Committee who gave a speech at the University of Surrey yesterday evening. As you can imagine at a time of rising inflation concerns she got straight to what she considers to be important.

Many critics have laid the blame on the tools that economists use – our models.So, in my speech today, I
will attempt to shed some light on how and why economists use models. Specifically, I will focus on how they
are useful to me as a practitioner on the MPC

Things do not start well because in my life whilst there has been a change from paper based maps to the era of Google Maps they have proved both useful and reliable unlike economic models.

An oft-used analogy is to think of models as maps

Perhaps Silvana gets regularly lost. She certainly seems lost at sea here.

Similarly, economic models have improved with greater
computing power, econometric techniques and data availability, but there is still significant uncertainty that
cannot be eliminated.

Let me add to this with an issue we have regularly looked at on here which is the Phillips Curve and associated “output gap” style analysis.

Many commentators have recently argued that the Phillips curve is no longer apparent in the data – the
observed correlation between inflation and slack is much weaker than it has been in the past. If the Phillips
curve truly has flattened or disappeared, then the current strength of the UK labour market may be less likely
to translate into a pick-up in domestic inflationary pressures. Given that the Phillips curve is one of the
building blocks of standard macroeconomic models, including those used by the MPC, a breakdown in the
relationship would also call for a reassessment.

Er no I have been arguing this since about 2010/11 as the evidence began that it was not working in the real world. However Silvana prefers the safe cosy world of her Ivory Tower.

My view is that these fears are largely misplaced. I expect that the narrowing in labour market slack we have
seen over the past year will lead to greater inflationary pressures, as in our standard models.

The fundamental problem is that the Bank of England has told us this for year after year now. One year they may even be right and no doubt there will be an attempt to redact the many years of errors and being wrong but we are now at a stage where the whole theory is flawed even if it now gets a year correct. As we stand with four months in a row of falling total pay in the UK the outlook for the Phillips Curve is yet again poor. Here is how Silvana tells us about this.

Although average weekly earnings (AWE) growth has now been strengthening since the middle of 2017,

Inflation

Fortunately on her way to the apparently important work of explaining to us of how up is the new down regarding economic models Silvana does refer to her views on inflation.

such as energy costs. And indeed, Chart 2 shows that the contribution of the purple bars to inflation
is correlated with the peaks and troughs of oil-price inflation over the past decade or so

It is probably because her mind is on other matters that she has given us a presumably unintentional rather devastating critique of the central bankers obsession with core inflation which of course ignores exactly that ( and food). Mind you it does not take her long to forget this.

Since the effects of oil-price swings are transitory, there is a good case for ‘looking through’ their impact on inflation.

Oh and those who recall my critique of the Bank of England models on the subject of the impact of the post EU leave vote will permit me a smile as I note this.

But in the past few quarters, we have seen some
building evidence that import prices have been rising slightly less than we had expected (only by around half
of the increase in foreign export prices – Chart 3). For me, this may be one reason why CPI inflation has
recently fallen back faster than we had expected.

I have no idea why they thought this and argued against it correctly as even they now admit. This is of course especially awkward in the middle of a speech designed to boost the economic models that have just been wrong yet again!

Comment

If we move to the policy prescription the outlook is not good for someone who has just dismissed the recent rise in the oil price as only likely to have a “transitory” effect. In fact as we move forwards we get the same vacuous waffle.

While I anticipate that a few rate rises will be needed, the timing of those rate rises is an open question

Okay but when?

With falling imported inflation offset by a gradual pick-up in domestic costs, I judge that conditional on the
outlook I have just described, a gradual tightening in monetary policy will be necessary over the next three
years to return inflation to target and keep demand growing broadly in line with supply.

So not anytime soon!

The flexibility is limited, however – waiting a few more
quarters increases the likelihood that inflation overshoots the target. In May, I felt that as in these scenarios, the costs of waiting a short period of time for more information were
small.

So more of the same although let me give Silvana a little credit as she was willing to point out that Forward Guidance is a farce.

Taken literally, the models suggest implausibly large economic effects from promises about interest rates many years in the future. There is ample empirical evidence that these strong assumptions do not hold in real-world data.

Also she does seem willing to accept that the world is a disaggregated place full of different impacts on different individuals.

Another unrealistic assumption in many macroeconomic models is that everyone is the same. Or more
accurately, that everyone can be characterised by a single, representative household or firm.

 

Can negative interest-rates prevent a recession in Denmark?

One of the features of the response to the credit crunch was a general reduction in interest-rates. This was followed later by Quantitative Easing and around the Euro area in particular by further reductions in interest-rates. This was evidenced by Denmark where its Nationalbanken cut its current account rate to 0% in June 2012 where it remains. Even more so by its certificate of deposit or CD rate which moved into negative territory in July 2012 at -0.2% and is now -0.65% having been as low as -0.75%. So after raising interest-rates almost unbelievably as the credit crunch hit the Nationalbanken became an enthusiastic cutter of them and before we get to the impact on the Danish economy we need to remind ourselves that there is an external or foreign restraint at play here.

Denmark maintains a fixed-exchange-rate policy vis-à-vis the euro area and participates in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM 2, at a central rate of 746.038 kroner per 100 euro with a fluctuation band of +/- 2.25 per cent.

So it is no great surprise to note that Danish interest-rates were in effect sucked lower by the impact of Mario Draghi’s “Whatever it takes ( to save the Euro) speech and policies. Of course all interest-rate policies have external and internal economic implications but when you have such an explicit one the external takes over at times of stress. For choice I would call it a pegged currency rather than fixed as whilst it is unlikely it could more easily change the rate than it could leave the “irreversible” Euro if it had joined it. Anyway here is how the Nationalbanken  reviewed events back in the summer of 2012.

For the first time in its nearly 200-year history, one of Danmarks Nationalbank’s interest rates is negative. Negative monetary-policy interest rates are also unique in an international perspective.

They were not lonely for long!

The economic situation

At the end of last month the Nationalbanken told us this.

The Danish economy is in a boom where the
growth outlook is slightly better than the potential……. There is consensus that labour market
pressures will intensify.

We get the picture although the discussion with the Danish Economic Council did have something from the left field.

In addition, the calculation assumes an increase in the retirement age by 12 years relative to today.

Really? It seems for best that they think that the public finances are in good shape. Although I note that the enthusiasm for easy monetary policy does not spread to fiscal policy.

This should not be perceived as scope for fiscal policy accommodation within a foreseeable time horizon. The cyclical position must be taken into account.

Returning to the economic situation we were told this back in March.

The upswing continued in the 2nd half of 2017 and the Danish economy has now entered a boom phase. Labour market pressures have increased, but so far the upswing has been balanced.

That is Danmarks Nationalbank’s conclusion in a new projection of the Danish economy, in which growth in the gross domestic product, GDP, is expected to be 1.9 per cent this year, 1.8 per cent next year and 1.7 per cent in 2020.

We need a caveat for those who think that these days we need recorded growth of 2%  per annum just to stand still but Nationalbanken Governor Lars Rhode is not one of them.

The Danish economy is booming

In fact the outlook is so good that the brakes may need to be applied although it is revealing that Governor Rhode seems to have forgotten that the task below is usually considered to be the role of monetary policy because it is more flexible.

So the government should be prepared to introduce preventive fiscal tightening at short notice if there are signs that the economy is overheating.

The boom

We get a new perspective on the concept of boom if we note that at current prices the GDP of Denmark was 537.9 billion Danish Krone in the first quarter of 2017 and 537.3 billion in the first quarter of this year. This was driven by this.

Gross domestic product fell 0.6 percent in the third quarter from the previous three-month period, Statistics Denmark said on Thursday ( Bloomberg).

In fact we know that on the measure looked at above it fell by 0.8% and unknown to Bloomberg back then it had also fallen by over 1% in the second quarter so there had in fact been a recession in the boom. How can this be? Well there was an element of the Irish problem.

The reason is primarily a large payment of a Danish owned patent which is temporarily accounted for as service exports in Q1 2017. That leaves Q1 GDP at a massive 2.3% q/q growth and Q2 at -1.2%. Q3 turned out even worse than previously suggested at -0.8% but it is largely attributed to negative stock building and the above mentioned sudden stop in car sales. ( Danske Bank ).

This meant that if you looked at 2017 as a calendar year things looked like a boom. From the Financial Times.

Gross domestic product increased 2.1 per cent for the year overall, the country’s best performance since 2006. Jan Størup Nielsen, chief analyst at Nordea, said the country is now “running at full capacity” for the first time in 10 years, and said the solid performance “will likely continue in 2018”.

Yet if you look from the latest data then the economy is smaller than a year before! If we move to the cause here is the likely factor.

However, most of Denmark’s most valuable patents are held by pharmaceuticals companies and several economists pointed to a payment made to Danish group Forward Pharma last January. Nasdaq-listed Forward received a $1.25bn payment from US biotech Biogen as part of a dispute over patents for multiple sclerosis treatments. Forward chief executive Claus Bo Svendsen said the data showed “a nice time-wise correlation with our deal with Biogen”.

House Prices

From the Nationalbanken.

As a result of the gradual shift from bank loans to
mortgage loans in recent years, mortgage lending
continues to drive lending growth.

They will need to drive it a bit faster as at the end of 2017 there was a dip in house prices after a spell of rises which in the light of the negative interest-rates era you may not be surprised to learn began in 2012.  The 85.7 of the index was replaced by 111 in the autumn of last year but it ended the year at 109.1 . Like many capital cities Copenhagen is now under much cooler pressures than were seen before.

Comment

Let me open with this from Bloomberg yesterday.

In the world-record holder of negative rates, there’s been another eye-catching development.

Danes are richer than ever before, according to central bank data on savings and home equity. But they’re spending less, in relative terms. The gap between private consumption and household wealth is the biggest it’s been in three decades.

Those familiar with my analysis will not be surprised unlike those Bloomberg go on to quote. This is because there is a large group of losers as those who do not own property face inflation which does not show up in the Consumer Price Index which is at 102.2 compared to 100 in 2015. Whereas the winners are really only those who have sold and made a profit or more implicitly those who have used higher prices to borrow more.

So wealth is not what is used to be as we get another reminder that GDP isn’t either.

Though private consumption did inch up 0.9 percent in the first quarter, it wasn’t enough to prevent the economy from shrinking on an annual basis.  Danske says GDP growth this year probably won’t exceed 2 percent.

Furthermore will Denmark be influenced by the slowing in the UK and Euro area and with interest-rates already negative how would it respond in such a scenario?

 

 

Dear Bank of England how is 8.8% consumer credit growth “weak” please?

This morning has brought better news for the UK economy from the manufacturing sector as this from the SMMT ( Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders) highlights.

UK car manufacturing rises 5.2% in April, with 127,952 vehicles rolling off British production lines.

However this is in comparison to last April which was a particularly poor month so we need to look for context of which we get a little here.

Growth, however, was also buoyed by production ramp up at several plants to deliver a number of key new and updated models.

Let us hope so as whilst the 3.9% fall in production in the year so far is better than the -6.3% in March the numbers remain weaker. We export 80% of the cars we make and production there is 2.2% lower in 2018 so far but whilst the home market is a mere 20% production for it has fallen by 10.3%.

This links us in to today’s subject of monetary trends in the UK because domestic car demand is so dependent on finance these days with around £44 billion lent last year and involved in 88% of purchases according to the Finance and Leasing Association. So Bank of England Governor Mark Carney will have noted today’s data as we mull whether he is more interested in the implications for consumer credit and the finance industry or car manufacturing?

House Prices

This from the Nationwide Building Society will have gone straight to the top of Mark Carney’s Bloomberg screen.

“UK annual house price growth slowed modestly in May to
2.4%, from 2.6% in April. House prices fell by 0.2% over the
month, after taking account of seasonal factors.”

So pretty much what we have come to expect as most private-sector measures have house price growth around 2%. The official numbers are higher which sadly means they being a more recent construction are more likely to be in error. However the next bit might have Mark Carney spluttering his coffee onto his screen.

Overall, we continue to expect
house prices to rise by around 1% over the course of 2018.

Oh and this provides some perspective on us not building houses.

“Data from the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government shows that, over the last 20 years, the total housing stock in England has increased from 20.6 million to 24 million dwellings, a rise of 16%

Families have got smaller but we are left wondering about how much the population has grown?

Just for context the index fell from 424.1 in April to 423.4 in May. If you want a real bit of number crunching then the 1952 index set at 100 is now at 11201.6 and whilst methodology changes have been made the numbers speak for themselves.

Money Supply

There was another weakening in the broad money data in April.

Broad money increased by £0.5 billion in April . Within this, the flow of households’ M4 was -£3.1 billion , the lowest monthly flow for at least 20 years. The flow of private non-financial corporations’ (PNFCs’) M4 was £5.5 billion.

 

The net flow of sterling credit was -£5.3 billion in April (Table A). Within this, the flow for households increased to £4.3 billion 

So the growth impulse is weak and the number for households is eye-catching so let us stick with that for a moment. One area which signalled something is total mortgage lending which fell by £1.6 billion to £1373.3 billion in spite of net lending being £3.9 billion.

Moving wider let us look at the trend which shows that broad money lending growth ( M4L) has so far in 2018 grown at an annual rate of 4.5%,3.8%,3.7% and now 3.2%. So we remain in a situation where it is fading as we are reminded of the rule of thumb that it represents economic growth plus inflation. It is always hard to figure out when it will apply and it is hopeful that inflation has been fading but nonetheless it implies continuing weak economic growth.

Consumer Credit

There was a return to what might be called normal service this month as Governor Carney reaches for a celebratory Martini.

Net lending for consumer credit was £1.8 billion in April, up from £0.4 billion in March . Within this, net lending on credit cards was £0.6 billion and net lending for other loans and advances was £1.3 billion.

If we look at the breakdown we see that credit card growth and the rest of consumer credit are now growing at similar percentage rates. This gives us a clue that car finance has indeed dipped in response to the issues we looked at above as the “other” category had been growing consistently more quickly in the past three years and peaked around 12% in the autumn of 2016 in response to the Bank Rate cut and Sledgehammer QE of August 2016. But we do not get any sort of break down.

This brings us to the annual rate of growth.

The 12-month growth rate of consumer credit was 8.8% in April, compared to 8.6% in March

Now this is over treble wage growth and a larger multiple of economic growth as it seems to be a bit over 1% and of course is far higher than real wages which are in a broad sweep flat. This reminds me of something from the Bank of England that I challenged at the time.

This is something that I challenged at the time as frankly there have been few stronger series of anything n the UK than consumer credit growth. A policymaker should be able to distinguish between one weaker month in numbers that can be erratic from what is as we noted above at least a three-year trend of up, up and away.

This brings me to a deeper issue which is the take over of so many bodies which are claimed to be independent by HM Treasury. Sir David Ramsden CBE was there for decades rising to Director General and this means that all of the Deputy Governors involved in monetary policy have been in the past at HM Treasury. This is sadly true of the Office of National Statistics which has an HM Treasury “minder” in the shape of Nicholas Vaughan who in my opinion has been the main driving the use of rental equivalence in the CPIH inflation measure.

Comment

We find ourselves noting that 2018 has seen a weakening of the monetary impulse to the UK economy. Some of this will be from the return to a 0.5% Bank Rate last November and the end of the flow of liquidity from the Term Funding Scheme in February. But it is also true that this seems to be a wider move as we note fading in the Euro area monetary data too. Meanwhile it is boom time for consumer credit which of course means the lending we have is very unbalanced and as I feared at the time the banks through a big curve ball to the Bank of England’s credit surveys beginning last August. This sort of data gets ignored by many but actually often provides a useful leading indicator for the economy.

Meanwhile there is some good news to welcome but as we do let us note that somehow or other the “precious” seems to have been missed out again. From the BBC.

“Rent-to-own” shops that sell appliances and furniture for small weekly payments will face a price cap similar to limits on payday loans.

However, the financial regulator will not rush to impose the same restrictions on bank overdrafts.

Me on Core Finance TV