Turkey is facing the consequences of another currency collapse

Today we have an example of an exception proving the rule. Indeed it is something so rare in these days of negative interest-rates that I hope you are all sitting comfortably.

ISTANBUL (Reuters) – Turkey’s central bank raised the interest rate in its lira swap operation to 11.75% from 10.25% on Friday, continuing additional tightening steps in the face of a weakening lira after unexpectedly hiking its benchmark interest rate last month.

Following the rate hike in its swap transactions, the lira  rebounded to near 7.90 against the U.S. dollar from a record low of 7.9550 earlier in the day. It had eased back to 7.9375 as of 1010 GMT.

Today is full of hints or more interest-rate cuts in China and Europe but Turkey has found itself raising them again, albeit in an official way. But as you can see the initial reaction in terms of the Turkish Lira was along the lines of “meh”.Actually the Turkish Lira did rally later to 7.84, but that was from another perspective only back to where it was on Wednesday and this morning it is back to 7.89.

Turkish Lira Troubles

It has been a hard year as Bloomberg points out.

Turkey’s lira depreciated to a record against U.S. dollar, decoupling from other emerging-currencies amid mounting geopolitical risks in the region.

The lira fell as much as 0.9% to 7.8692 per dollar, extending losses this year to more than 24%, the second-biggest slide in emerging markets after Brazil’s real.

As you can see that level got replaced and in spite of the unofficial interest-rate rise we are below it now. Regular readers may well recall that the Lira was slip-sliding away and hitting new lows back in the summer of 2018 and the move through 6 versus the US Dollar was regarded as significant whereas now we are on the verge of 8 being the big figure.

Because of the economic links the exchange-rate with the Euro is significant. Indeed some Euro area banks must be mulling their lending to Turkish borrowers as well as Euro area exporters struggling with an exchange-rate of 9.32. That is some 43% lower than a year ago.

Whilst we are discussing big figure changes we see that the UK Pound £ now buys more than ten Turkish Lira.

Inflation Surges

This is the obvious initial consequence of an exchange-rate depreciation.

In August, consumer prices rose by 0.86% and annual inflation remained flat at 11.77%. While annual inflation rose in core goods, energy and food groups, it remained unchanged in the services group. Meanwhile, annual inflation in the alcoholic beverages and tobacco group declined significantly due to the high base from tobacco products

That is from the latest Minutes of the Turkish central bank or TCMB and in fact the impact is even larger in essential goods.

Annual inflation in food and non-alcoholic beverages increased by 0.78 points to 13.51% in August. The rise in annual unprocessed food inflation by 1.51 points to 15.36% was the main driver of this increase.

As important is what happens next and here is the TCMB view.

In September, inflation expectations continued to increase. The year-end inflation expectation rose by 64 basis points to 11.46%, and the 12-month-ahead inflation expectation increased by 45 basis points to 10.15%.

With the ongoing fall in the Lira that looks too low to me. On the other hand I think that Ptofessor Steve Hanke is too high.

Today, I measure #Inflation in #Turkey at 35.67%/yr.

I can see how goods inflation might have such influences but other prices will not respond so mechanically.

Trade Problems

You might think that an ever more competitive economy in terms of the exchange-rate would lead to a balance of payments triumph. However this morning’s figures tell a different story.

The current account posted USD 4,631 million deficit compared to USD 3,314 million surplus observed in the same month of 2019, bringing the 12-month rolling deficit to USD 23,203 million. ( August data).

There are two highlights here. It is significant that the release is in US Dollars and not Turkish Lira. But we also note that Turkey has gone from surplus to deficit about which we get more detail here.

This development is mainly driven by the net outflow of USD 5,347 million in the good deficit increasing by USD 3,948 million, as well as the net inflow of USD 1,179 million in services item decreasing by USD 4,602 million compared to the same month of the previous year.

One factor at play in the services sector weakness is tourism. If we look at the year so far we see this is confirmed by a surplus of US $4.15 billion as opposed to one of US $19.17 billion in the same period in 2019. Another way of looking at this is that 3,225,033 visitors are recorded as opposed to 13,349,256 last year.

The problem here is also what is called the reverse J Curve effect where imports have become more expensive but it takes time for volumes to shift as well as it taking time for more orders to come in for the relatively cheaper exports. At the moment that is exacerbated by the pandemic as for example if we stay with tourism international travel has fallen and with further restrictions possible it may not matter how cheap you are.

Staying with theoretical economics we should be seeing the J Curve effect from the 2018 devaluation but right now as we have noted with tourism practicalities are trumping theory.

Foreign Debt

We get some context here if we note this from Bloomberg.

Meanwhile, Turkey paid a premium as it sold $2.5 billion of debt to international investors on Tuesday, it’s first foray into global markets since February. The bonds priced at 6.4%, compared with 4.25% for similar-maturity notes issued in February.

We note the fact that we have another trend reversal here as most countries have seen lower debt costs whereas Turkey is paying more. The theme of borrowing in US Dollars is a Turkish theme though and in terms of the money raised each one has so far been a success as in it would have been more expensive later. The catch is when we get to interest payments and repayments which have got ever more expensive in Turkish Lira. So if your income is in US Dollars or other overseas currencies you are okay but if it is in Lira you are in trouble.

According to the TCMB here is what is coming up from its July data.

Short-term external debt stock on a remaining maturity basis, calculated based on the external debt maturing within 1 year or less regarding of the original maturity, recorded USD 176.5 billion, of which USD 15.9 billion belongs to the resident banks and private sectors to the banks’ branches and affiliates abroad. From the borrowers side, public sector accounted for 23.9 percent, Central Bank accounted for 11.4 percent and private sector accounted 64.7 percent in total stock.

August saw an outflow from the TCMB as well.

Official reserves recorded net outflow of USD 7,602 million.

They started the year at US $81.2 billion and are now US $41.4 billion.


So far we have noted a financial sector which is in distress with rising interest-rates a falling currency and overseas borrowing in a toxic mix. Let us now switch to the real economy where these will impact via general inflation highlighted by foreign goods and services being much more expensive. So living-standards will be lower. The normal mechanisms where a currency depreciation can help an economy are in many cases being blocked by the Covid-19 pandemic. Only on Friday we observed that the UK has been importing less which is pretty much a 2020 generic. This is added to be the fact that a Turkish economic strength ( tourism) has had an especially rough 2020.

There are other issues here as the continual foreign currency depreciation has led to a surge in demand for safe assets.

A significant part of the deterioration in the current account balance is due to gold imports. This year, gold imports will exceed $ 20 billion. ( Hakan Kara)

Gold of course exacerbates the US Dollar issue as it becomes increasingly important in Turkey. Actually the central bank has joined the game as its Gold reserves have risen by some US $17 billion so far this year and whilst some of that is a higher price it must also have bought some more.

Will more interest-rate increases help? I am not so sure as they are usually much smaller than the expected fall in the currency and they will crunch the economy even further. It would help of course if Turkey was not either actually in a war or acting belligerently on pretty much every border it has. Putting it another way government’s in economic trouble often look for foreign scapegoats.


Christine Lagarde has left another economic disaster behind her in Argentina

One of the rules of modern life is that the higher up the chain you are or as Yes Prime Minster put it “the greasy pole” the less responsible you are for anything. A clear example of that is currently Christine Lagarde who is on here way to becoming the next President of the European Central Bank and found her competence being praised to the heavens in some quarters. Yet the largest ever IMF programme she left behind continues to fold like a deckchair. From the Argentina central bank or BCRA this morning via Google Translate.

Measures to protect exchange-rate stability and the saver

There are two immediate perspectives. The first is that we need to translate the announcement which suggests as a minimum a modicum of embarrassment. Next when central banks tell you that you are being protected it is time to think of the strap line of the film The Fly.

Be Afraid, Be Very Afraid

Let us look at the detail.

The measure establishes that exporters of goods and services must liquidate their foreign exchange earnings in the local market……Resident legal entities may purchase foreign currency without restrictions for the importation or payment of debts upon expiration, but they will need compliance from the Central Bank of the Argentine Republic to purchase foreign exchange for the formation of external assets, for the precancelation of debts, to turn abroad profits and dividends and make transfers abroad.

So some restrictions on businesses and here are the ones on the public.

Humans will not have any limitations to buy up to USD 10,000 per month and will need authorization to buy amounts greater than that amount. Transactions that exceed USD 1,000 must be made with a debit to an account in pesos, since they cannot be carried out in cash. Nor will it be allowed to transfer funds from accounts abroad of more than USD 10,000 per person per month. Except between accounts of the same owner: in this case there will be no limitations.

If you are not Argentinian then the noose is a fair bit tighter.

Non-resident human and legal persons may purchase up to USD 1,000 per month and may not transfer funds from dollar accounts abroad.

What about the debt?

We need a bit of reprogramming here after all it has been party-time for bondholders in most of the world. However as Reuters points out not in Argentina.

Standard & Poors announced on Thursday that it was slashing Argentina’s long-term credit rating another three notches into the deepest area of junk debt, saying the government’s plan to “unilaterally” extend maturities had triggered a brief default. The ratings agency said it would consider Argentina’s long-term foreign and local currency issue ratings as CCC- “vulnerable to nonpayment” – starting on Friday following the government’s Wednesday announcement that it wants to “re-profile” some $100 billion in debt.

That’s more than a bit awkward for those who bought the 100 year bond which was issued in 2017. It was also rather difficult for the IMF which seems to have found itself in quicksand.

By the time Treasury Minister Hernan Lacunza said on Wednesday that the government wanted to extend maturities of short-term debt, and would negotiate new time periods for loans to be paid back to the International Monetary Fund, a debt revamp was already widely expected.

We will have to see how the century ( now 98 year ) bond does but after being issued at 85 it traded at 38 last week. In a sign of the times even the benchmark bond which in theory pays back 100 in 2028 did this.

The January 2028 benchmark briefly dropped under 40 cents for the first time ever before edging up to trade at 40.3.

For perspective Austria also issued a century bond at a similar time and traded at 202 last week.

The Peso

Back on August 12th I pointed out that it took 48.5 Pesos to buy a single US Dollar ahead of the official opening. Things went from bad to worse after the official opening with the currency falling into the mid-50s in a volatile market. On Friday it closed at 59.5 and that was after this.

The central bank has burnt through nearly $1 billion in reserves since Wednesday in an effort to prop up the peso. But the intervention did not have the desired impact and risk spreads blew out to levels not seen since 2005, while the local peso currency extended its year-to-date swoon to 36%. ( Reuters ).

If we stay with the issue of reserves I note that the BCRA itself tells us that as of last Wednesday it had US $57 billion left as opposed to this from my post on August 12th.

But staying with the central bank maybe it will be needing the US $66.4 billion of foreign exchange reserves.

I was right and the nuance here is shown by how little of the reserves were actually deployable in a crisis. We know 14% were used and at most 20% have now been used yet policy has been forced to change. That is a common theme of a foreign exchange crisis you only end up being able to use if I an generous half of your reserves before either you press the panic button or someone does it for you.


Here we see another departure from the world-wide trend as rather than falls we are seeing some eye-watering levels. Back on August 12th I noted an interest-rate of 63.71% whereas now it is 83.26%. This provides another perspective on the currency fall because you get quite decent return for these times if you can merely stay in the Peso for a week or two.

As for the domestic economy such an interest-rate must be doing a lot of damage because of the length of time this has lasted for as well as the number now.


As recently as June 7th last year the IMF announced this.

The Argentine authorities and IMF staff have reached an agreement on a 36-month Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) amounting to US$50 billion (equivalent to about SDR 35.379 billion or about 1,110 percent of Argentina’s quota in the IMF).

The amount has been raised since presumably because of the rate of access of funds. If you look at the IMF website it has already loaned just short of 33 billion SDRs. Meanwhile here is some gallows humour from back then.

The authorities have indicated that they intend to draw on the first tranche of the arrangement but subsequently treat the loan as precautionary.

As Christine Lagarde was cheerleading for this she did get one thing right.

I congratulate the Argentine authorities on reaching this agreement

They kept themselves in power with the help of IMF funds. That has not gone so well for the Argentine people not the shareholders of the IMF. There are similarities here with the debacle in Greece where of course Christine Lagarde was heavily involved in the “shock and awe” bailout that contributed to an economic depression. For example as 2018 opened the IMF forecast 2.5% economic growth for it and 2.8% this year as opposed to the reality of the numbers for the first quarter being 5.8% lower than a year before.

Yet as recently as April she was telling us this.

When the IMF completed its third review of Argentina’s economy in early April, managing director Christine Lagarde boasted that the government policies linked to the country’s record $56bn bailout from the fund were “bearing fruit”.

It is not an entirely isolated event as we look at other IMF programmes.

Pakistan Rupee -4.83% seems IMF’s (Lagarde’s) lesser-known second success story. Eurozone you are next up ( @Sunchartist )

But the official view has been given by Justin Trudeau of Canada who has described Christine Lagarde as a “great global leader.”


Russia faces the economic consequences of a plummeting oil price

One of the themes of this blog over the past year or so has been that the fall in the price of crude oil and other commodities is good overall for the world economy. Mostly the argument revolves around the fact that there are a lot more oil consumers than producers as we note that lower consumer inflation has pushed real wages higher in net consuming countries. However this begs a question for producers and squarely in that camp we find Vladimir Putin’s Russia which will note this morning’s news with dismay. From Marketwatch.

February Brent crude LCOH6, -1.59%  on London’s ICE Futures exchange fell 80 cents, or 2.7%, to $28.14 a barrel, but overnight fell to as low as $27.67 a barrel.

If we look back we see that it puts it some 43% lower than a year ago as the disinflationary burst for the world continues. However for reasons I shall explain below this is an example of deflation for Russia which comes combined with inflation in what is an example of how quite a lot can go wrong at once.

As an aside regular readers may recall when Brent Crude Oil pushed above WTI or West Texas Intermediate by over US $20 at one point and the justifications which followed. I wonder where they have gone as I see that Brent Crude is now lower by around 70 cents. Was this another sign of financialisation of commodity markets?

Also this reminds me to point out that Russian crude has a benchmark called Urals Crude which is trading some US $3 below the Brent benchmark so that Russia is only getting around US $25 right now. Back in the commodity boom days it too traded over giving Russia not that long ago an extra US $100 per barrel in the boom times.

The cost of the oil price fall to Russia

Back on the 23rd of November last year I looked at oil production.

Output from January to October averaged about 10.7 million barrels a day, a 1.3 percent increase over the same period in 2014, the data show. That’s in line with the Russian Energy Ministry’s full-year forecast for production of 533 million tons, or 10.7 million barrels a day.

Back then we thought that Russia had trouble with an oil price of US $44 per barrel,little did we know what would happen next! Back then I calculated that Russia was around US $680 million per day worse off compared to the past “tractor beam” price of US $108 well now it is more like US $890 million per day. A back of the envelope style calculation but you get the idea.

The Bank of Russia did its own calculation in its December Monetary Report.

In January-September 2015, the decline in prices for oil, oil products, gas, coal, iron ore and nickel led to a reduction in export earnings in these categories of commodities compared with the same period of the previous year by more than 110 billion US dollars,

The plunging Ruble

The currency markets responded to this change in Russian fortunes by marking the Russian Ruble sharply lower and this has carried on. Back on November 23rd I pointed out that the low 30s had been replaced by 66 which was quite a drop. Well the drumbeat has continued since as a lower oil price as Russia Today informs us.

The euro rose more than one ruble on the Moscow exchange, exceeding 85 rubles for first time since December 2014. The dollar reached nearly 79 rubles.

Thus we see that Russians will find everything from abroad to be more expensive and in fact much more expensive. This will impact on matters such as the Central London housing market and the concept of Chelski as I note that it takes 112 Rubles to buy a single UK Pound £.

Imported Inflation

A currency fall on this scale means that there will be imported inflation and this of course differentiates Russia from a world of zero or even negative inflation. From the Bank of Russia.

At the end of 2015, inflation will be roughly 13%. In 2016 Q1, inflation is estimated to be at 7.5–8.0%.

Since last summer 2014 when most of the rest of the world was seeing falling and then zeroish inflation prices in Russia have risen by 20 % or so. This is what has hit the ordinary Russian if we look at purely domestic terms and them going to the shops. The amount shoots higher whenever we look at foreign purchases or anything which is imported.

Economic growth

The falls in real wages of the order of 9 to 10% have had a clear impact on domestic consumption.

The annual rate of decline in household spending on final consumption was 8.7– 8.9% in Q3, according to estimates. In October, the contraction in consumer demand continued, as shown by the decline in retail trade turnover (to 11.7%).

These are Greece like numbers and we see something else familiar from that situation if we look at trade.

The weak ruble and low income of all economic agents meant that the high rate of decline in import quantities of goods and services persisted (roughly 30%).

This means that in a surprise to those who have not observed such a situation before we see this impact on economic growth and GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

As a result, the positive contribution of net exports to GDP growth increased. According to estimates, this trend in net export dynamics will remain in 2015 Q4.

This impact will be temporary and flatters the current situation as it will fade away over time as some import demand will remain and be inelastic. However in spite of this positive influence it was a grim 2015 and 2016 whilst better is none too bright either.

the estimated overall GDP growth for 2015 was revised upwards to the upper bound of the range defined by the Bank of Russia in the previous Monetary Policy Report, i.e. to -(3.7–3.9%). In 2016 Q1, the annual rate of GDP decline will continue to slow to -(1–2%).

Some care is needed with reporting these numbers as they are of course in Russian Rubles as we note the impact of this. What I mean is that these are bad enough but of course if we were to price things in US Dollars the situation is much worse. This is how people tweet and write about Russian GDP looking so bad in US Dollar terms as a falling GDP is combined with a plunging Ruble. Of course it is also true that Russian GDP will have taken a dive in most currencies but it is particularly bad against the US Dollar as we wonder if this is another front in the currency wars.

Asset prices

If we look at the central bankers favourite part of the economy we see trouble too. If we start with the stock market we see that it had a surprisingly stable 2015 but has fallen 9% in 2016 so far. As to house prices the Bank of Russia tells us this.

However, with subdued economic activity and, in particular, shrinking real disposable household income and falling investment demand, it is highly likely that monthly growth in housing prices will remain negative up to the end of 2015, and a decrease in prices will be recorded at the end of the year.


We do not know what will happen next to the oil price and care should be taken in using a marginal daily price to cover a country’s economic prospects. But there clearly has been a major shift lower in oil and commodity prices and that shift has hit the Russian economy very hard. From our point of view it is hard to imagine a place where imported good and services have doubled in price and some have done more than that. The economy itself will have the problems of money illusion too – as Ruble prices will adjust over time rather than immediately – which UK economic history shows does not help.

The forecasts stated above are based on a higher oil price than now so Russia faces the prospect of 2016 being another year of economic contraction. Also there are two other things which stand out in its economic situation. One is the problem of repaying debt in US Dollars with a depreciating Ruble. The other is having an interest-rate of 11% as much of the world has near zero and some of Russia’s neighbours have negative interest-rates. If we combine the two it must be awfully tempting to borrow in US Dollars, Euros and Yen mustn’t it?





The economic consequences of devaluing the Euro

One of the features of current world economic policy is the implicit effort of the European Central Bank to gain a competitive advantage by driving the value of the Euro lower on the foreign exchanges. Yesterday there was another effort via Reuters.

A consensus is forming at the European Central Bank to take the interest rate it charges banks to park money deeper into negative territory in December, four governing council members said, a move that could weaken the euro and push up inflation.

Some argue that a deposit rate cut should even be larger than the 0.1 percent reduction currently expected in financial markets, the policymakers said.

Actually after the recent speeches of Mario Draghi it was already clear that a deposit rate cut of more than 0.1% was being considered. Or perhaps more specifically they want us to think is being considered. Reuters did however touch on what I consider is the real game here.

The euro fell by as much as half a cent in response to the Reuters story

Draghi’s Currency Wars

Back at the last policy meeting for the ECB it had a problem. The Euro effective or trade weighted exchange rate was in the low 94s which is where it was when it implemented a major expansion of asset purchases back in January. To be specific the value of the Euro had fallen sharply initially and had continued lower until it dipped below 89 in mid-April. But from then onwards it had risen back to pretty much where it had begun. If you look at this in terms of bang for your buck then treading water does not seem especially good value in return for 60 billion Euros of QE a month.

Thus we saw Mario Draghi respond with a salvo of Open Mouth Operations which have involved hints and promises about taking the deposit rate which is already at -0.2% lower and either a fast rate of asset purchases or extending the term beyond the current end date of 2016. In response the Euro has fallen again and has done so most markedly against the US Dollar where it is now in the 1.07s but if we look wider we see that it is at 91.55 on the effective index. Accordingly Mario’s jawboning has been a success in financial markets terms as the Euro has dropped, however for the real economy we need to take care as if you think about it investment decisions are based on estimates of where they think an exchange-rate will be over a period of years not weekly or monthly fluctuations.

Mario has not always been a soft currency supporter

Back in July 2013 we were told a rather different story. From Reuters.

Noting that the currency’s recent strengthening on foreign exchange markets was a sign of renewed confidence in the euro, Draghi told a news conference:

So the current weakening is a sign of a lack of confidence in the Euro which Mario is encouraging? Anyway a year later Mario had decided you could have too much of a good thing. From CNBC in July 2014.

The recent rise in the value of the euro could stifle the flickering signs of growth in the euro zone,

Such reminders raise a wry smile but to be fair they also indicate that too much pressure is on central banks these days in terms of economic policy. Thus they have morphed into political style behaviour.

Competitive Devaluation

Here is something that rarely gets a mention so perhaps it is another example of the military dictum that it is best to hide something in plain sight. In today’s complex world how do you define a competitive devaluation and indeed exporting deflation. Well I would suggest that acting to drive your currency lower via monetary expansion when you are in the process of announcing a quarterly current account surplus of 53.8 billion Euros is a clear example. Indeed fuel is added to the fire by the fact that the surplus was over 20 billion Euros larger than a year before.

Now we get to something even more awkward if we look at the trade colossus which is Germany. In the first quarter of 2015 it announced a trade surplus of 56.8 billion Euros which means that the lower Euro is benefiting one of the factors which those who look at balance sheet balances think got the world into its current malaise. Also I have argued on here in the past that claimed defeats for Germany on policy such as over Greece might be considered a price to pay for a Euro value much lower than where a Deutschemark would be now. There has been an enormous competitive devaluation here which is being added to.

Just for clarity the German numbers include intra- Euro area trade so are not a like for like comparison with the overall Euro area ones.

What about QE?

Fans of the Matrix series of films will recall the bit when the Frenchman tells us about “cause and effect”. Sadly for his eloquent description we see that in the QE era the effect becomes before the cause. In the UK the UK Pound had its 25% or so fall in 2007/08 before QE began in 2009 and the Euro fell in 2014 ahead of the QE announcement in January 2015. Expectations of monetary easing lead to a currency fall before the easing happens or if you like we see yet another example of markets front-running central banks.

Take your pick as to where you think this began but back in April 2014 we saw the Euro top out in the mid-104s in trade-weighted terms but the acceleration began from 100 on December 16th 2014. Either date presents a much bigger move that what has happened since and makes any regression analysis problematic.

The economic impact

Back in March 2014 Mario Draghi told us what the ECB thinks the impact is.

 Now, as a rule of thumb, each 10% permanent effective exchange rate appreciation lowers inflation by around 40 to 50 basis points. So we can say that between 2012 and today about 0.4 or 0.5 percentage points of inflation was taken out of current inflation because of the exchange rate appreciation. Having said that, we have to be cautious, because there was a previous depreciation of the euro.

If we look at where we are and compare to the nice round number of 100 of mid-December 2014 then so far if we assume the Euro remains where it is now for long enough for Mario to consider the move “permanent” then the maximum impact on the inflation rate is 0.4%.

The ECB has been much more reticent about the impact on economic growth but if we used the Bank of England rule of thumb we have seen a move equivalent to to 2% fall in interest-rates. If we make a larger jump and look at the numbers established by the US Federal Reserve yesterday then the Euro area would get a 2.2% rise in exports and a 0.6% rise in economic output or Gross Domestic Product. Now I rush to say that America is not the Euro area and we are ignoring gains from falls in imports as the Euro is not the reserve currency but it does give an impression. Also you could choose different dates to compare.

Also we have to factor in that the Euro area has lost some of the gains from the falling oil price as it fell too. Over the past year it has taken away about a third of the gains that would have otherwise taken place.


I will leave that to the Swedish Riksbank which has rather intriguingly trolled the ECB in its monthly minutes which were published earlier today.

The markets have also interpreted the latest communication from the ECB as a clear signal that further stimulus measures are to be expected in December……. The ECB has indicated that it may make its monetary policy even more expansionary.

Indeed is the next bit trolling or a threat?

Expectations of a more expansionary monetary policy from the ECB have, together with an appreciation of the Swedish krona in September, contributed to the majority of analysts expecting further easing measures from the Riksbank before the end of the year,

So the Riksbank is trolling both the ECB and analysts now? Anyway the Financial Times reported it this way.

Riksbank head ‘would not hesitate’ to intervene in FX (Foreign Exchange).

This is obviously in itself a localised issue in the sense that Sweden is so near to the Euro area and is relatively small. But we are faced if we look at the countries looking to lower their currency as well (Japan springs to mind) with the issue of who is going to import the deflation they export? Meanwhile Paul Krugman searches for David Bowie on Spotify.

Is there life on Mars?

Or for Jeff Wayne.

At midnight on the twelfth of August, a huge mass of luminous gas erupted from Mars and sped towards Earth