Take your pick as UK Inflation rises via CPI and falls via RPI whilst staying the same via CPIH

The issue of UK inflation being above target is obviously troubling the UK establishment so much so that this morning HM Treasury has decided to tell us this.

Latest data from comes out today. Find out more about how the UK brought inflation under control:

There is a problem here as you see when we introduced inflation targeting in late 1992 the targeted measure called RPIX was below 4% and around 3.7% if the chart they use is any guide. It is currently 4% after 4.2% last month which is of course higher and not lower! So this is not the best time to herald the triumph of inflation targeting to say the least! Even worse if you look at the longer-term inflation charts in the release it is clear that the main fall in inflation happened before inflation targeting began. I will leave readers to mull whether the better phase was in fact the end of an economic mistake which was exchange-rate targeting.

The Forties problem

There will be a burst of inflationary pressure when we get the December inflation data from this issue. From the Financial Times.

The North Sea’s key Forties Pipeline System, which delivers the main crude oil underpinning the Brent benchmark, is likely to be shut for “weeks” to carry out repairs to an onshore section of the line, a spokesman for operator Ineos said on Monday. The move follows the worsening of a hairline crack in the 450,000 barrel-a-day pipe near Red Moss in Aberdeenshire over the weekend……..The FPS transports almost 40 per cent of the UK North Sea’s oil and gas production by connecting 85 fields to the British mainland.

If I was Ineos I would be crawling over the contract to buy the pipeline as they only did so in October and may have been sold something of a pup by BP. But in terms of the impact we have seen Brent Crude Oil move above US $65 per barrel in response to this. Also a cold snap in the UK is not the best time for gas supplies to be reduced as we wait to see how prices will respond. No doubt some of the production will get ashore in other ways but far from all. Also other news is not currently helping as this from @mhewson_CMC points out.

U.K. GAS FUTURES SURGE ON BAUMGARTEN EXPLOSION, NORWAY OUTAGE………front month futures jump about 20%.

Today’s data

This will have received a particularly frosty reception at the Bank of England this morning.

CPI inflation edged above 3% for the first time in nearly six years, with the price of computer games rising and airfares falling more slowly than this time last year. These upward pressures were partly offset by falling costs of computer equipment.

The annual reading of 3.1% means that Governor Mark Carney will have to write a letter to the Chancellor of Exchequer Phillip Hammond to explain why it is more than 1% over its target. I have sent via social media a suggested template.

Of course the official version could have been written by Shaggy.

I had tried to keep her from what
She was about to see
Why should she believe me
When I told her it wasn’t me?

We will not find out precisely until February as one of the improvements to the UK inflation targeting regime was to delay the publication of such a letter until it was likely to be no longer relevant.

How can we keep the recorded rate of inflation down?

This will have troubled the UK establishment and they came up with the idea of making a number up based on rents which are never paid. They rushed a proposal in last year as they noted that it was likely to be a downwards influence on inflation in 2017. How is that going? I have highlighted the relevant number.

The CPI rate is higher than the CPIH equivalent principally because the CPI excludes owner occupiers’ housing costs. These rose by 1.5% in the year to November 2017, less than the CPI rate of 3.1% and, as a result, they pulled the CPI rate down slightly, to CPIH.

That number which is a fiction as the Imputed Rents are never actually paid has a strong influence on CPIH.

Given that OOH accounts for around 17% of CPIH, it is the main driver for differences between the CPIH and CPI inflation rates.

This is like something straight out of Yes Prime Minister where a number which is never paid is used to reduce the answer. Just for clarity rents should be in the data for those who pay them but not for those who own their home and do not. Those who own their homes will be wondering why actual real numbers like the ones below are not used.

Average house prices in the UK have increased by 4.5% in the year to October 2017 (down from 4.8% in September 2017). The annual growth rate has slowed since mid-2016 but has remained broadly around 5% during 2017.

What do you think it is about a real number that would INCREASE the recorded inflation rate that led it to be rejected for a fake news one which DECREASES the recorded inflation rate?

House Prices

Tucked away in the release was this which may be a sign of a turn.

The average UK house price was £224,000 in October 2017. This is £10,000 higher than in October 2016 and £1,000 lower than last month.

A 0.5% monthly fall. As the series is erratic we will have to wait for further updates.

What is coming over the hill?

We are being affected by the higher oil price.

The one-month rate for materials and fuels rose 1.8% in November 2017 (Table 3), which is a 0.8 percentage points increase from 1.0% in October 2017, driven by inputs of crude oil, which was up 7.6% on the month.

This meant that producer price inflation rose on the month.

The headline rate of inflation for goods leaving the factory gate (output prices) rose 3.0% on the year to November 2017, up from 2.8% in October 2017. Prices for materials and fuels (input prices) rose 7.3% on the year to November 2017, up from 4.8% in October 2017.

This is more than a UK issue as this from Sweden Statistics earlier indicates.

The rise in the CPI from October to November 2017 was mainly due to a price increase of vehicle fuels and lubricants (4.5 percent),

Comment

There is a lot to consider here as headlines will be generated by the fact that Bank of England Governor Mark Carney will have to write an explanatory letter about the way CPI inflation has risen to more than 1% above its annual target. He might briefly wish that the old target of RPIX was still in use.

The annual rate for RPIX, the all items RPI excluding mortgage interest payments (MIPs), is 4.0%, down from 4.2% last month.

Although actually he would soon realise that he would have had to have written a formal letter a while ago for it. For the thoughtful there is interest in one measure rising as another falls and here are the main reasons.

Other differences including weights, which decreased the RPI 12-month rate relative to the CPI 12-month rate by 0.15 percentage points between October and November 2017.

Ironically putting house prices into the inflation measure would have reduced it last month.

Other housing components excluded from the CPI, which decreased the RPI 12-month rate relative to the CPI 12-month rate by 0.06 percentage points between October and
November 2017. The effect came mainly from house depreciation.

Will the UK establishment do another u-turn and suddenly decide that house prices are fit for use ( now they may be falling) in the same way they abandoned aligning us with Europe by not using them or the way they dropped RPIJ?

The trend now sees two forces at play. The trend towards higher inflation from the lower UK Pound £ is not far off over. However we are seeing a higher oil price offset that for the time being and I am including the likely data for December in this. So we will have to wait for 2018 for clearer signs of a turn although the Retail Price Index may already be signalling it.

Meanwhile the “most comprehensive measure of inflation” and the Office for National Statistics favourite CPIH continues to be pretty much ignored. The punch may need fortifying for this years Christmas party.

Meanwhile I guess it could be (much) worse.

The Financial Times said Avondale Pharmaceuticals bought the rights to Niacor from Upsher Smith, a division of Japan’s Sawai Pharmaceutical, earlier this year. The company also bought the rights to a drug used to treat respiratory ailments, known as SSKI, and increased the price by 2,469 per cent, raising the cost of a 30ml bottle from $11.48 to $295.

 

 

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UK house prices get ramped one more time

Yesterday we got the conformation we expected that the UK establishment cannot stop itself from meddling in the housing market with the intention of pushing house prices up. The various readings that the house price was turning highlighted by actual falls in the London area was always going to focus their minds. Thus the headline proposal in the Budget was this. From City-AM.

The government has used the Autumn Budget to abolish stamp duty for first-time buyers on purchases of up to £300,000.

First-time buyers will also receive a stamp duty holiday for the first £300,000 on purchases up to £500,000.

Launching the policy, the chancellor said 80 per cent of first-time buyers will pay no stamp duty as a result of the change.

Firstly let me wish those who are about to buy for the first time good luck with their windfall although not everybody sees it like that as this from the chief economics  correspondent of the Guardian Aditya Chakraborrty indicates.

Jack up your asking price to show him how stamp duty really works.

However sadly it will not end there as we know that such moves tend to boost house prices and of course this is the reason the policy is announced. For the government can claim it is helping first time buyers and boost house prices for property owners in a win double for it. If we think more deeply then poorer areas will see little benefit at all as the £125,000 limit for zero rate Stamp Duty was enough but areas with higher prices will see benefits and I note the way that the gains were given to those paying up to £500,000. That will benefit first time buyers in London ( albeit not some of central London) which makes me wonder if it is an attempt to stop or slow this? From the Evening Standard on London house prices.

Savills anticipates prices will fall 1.5 per cent in 2017 and a further two per cent in 2018, before stagnating in 2019

Things are usually really bad when an estate agent predicts price falls!

How much will house prices rise?

I put in a maximum public service effort yesterday on social media to point out that the first rule of OBR ( Office for Budget Responsibility) club is that the OBR is always wrong. Some seemed to learn but others parroted its claim that house prices will rise by 0.3%. So let us move on knowing that it will not be that as we mull that the gain can be up to £5000 so some prices will probably rise by that and of course some desperate to buy might leverage via a mortgage and be able to pay even more than that. There will be a small downwards effect above £500,000 as there is an extraordinary marginal tax rate where £1 costs £5000 on the other side.

Some however appear to be unaware of the record of the OBR and in this instance seemed as the TV series puts it Lost In Space.

You may note the large number of people who sent this one and wonder how many of them realise that Torsten now thinks it is between £160,000 and £190,000 although of course that may have changed by the time you read this. Does it qualify as fake news?

The BBC seems oblivious to the continual failures of the OBR too.

It also estimates that it will result in only an additional 3,500 first-time buyer purchases…….The policy will cost the Treasury £3.2bn over the next five years.

There is a further irony about this which is that Stamp Duty was one of the few areas where we seem able to raise tax rates and revenues. Partly of course due to the fact that housing benefits from capital gains tax exemptions for the main home.

Term Funding Scheme

Just a reminder that house prices will be pumped up by the extra £25 billion of this that the Bank of England requested on Monday and will therefore presumably supply before it ends in February. This works in several ways as you see banks get funds at or close to Bank Rate as opposed to going to savers which is both easier and cheaper than the 1.1% ( plus costs) they have to pay for new deposits from individuals according to the Bank of England. This means that the banks can mix between wider margins and lower mortgage rates than otherwise. The lower mortgage rates boost business volume compared to otherwise and of course via their impact on house prices improve the mortgage book of the banks.

Supply

There was a by now familiar refrain that we must build more houses which has been proclaimed by every Chancellor this century. From the BBC.

£44bn in overall government support for housing to meet target of building 300,000 new homes a year by the middle of the next decade.

I am sure you have already spotted that for housing demand it is jam today whereas for housing supply it is jam tomorrow! Indeed it is hard to avoid the thought that by the middle of the next decade the odds are that the current Chancellor will be long gone. Indeed according to Yes Prime Minster if you want to kick things into the long grass you announce an enquiry.

So I am establishing an urgent Review to look at the gap between planning permissions and housing starts.

It will be chaired by my Right Honourable Friend for West Dorset.

And will deliver an interim report in time for the Spring Statement next year.

Some care is needed as it takes time to plan and build houses and flats but we find yet again that demand and consequently house prices come first. On past track records the houses may not ever be built.

Universal Credit

It is clear that some of our poorest people have been affected by the clunky way that Universal Credit has been introduced. So I welcome the effort and money put forwards in the Budget to help with this and fixes if not all at least some of the problems.

Growth downgrade

The obvious cherry to pick for the headline writers has been the economic growth downgrade given to the UK. However this is based on the productivity forecasts of the OBR which have been well take a look for yourselves.

Oh and remember they were saying that UK borrowing will be higher this year than last? From the Budget Speech.

Today, the OBR confirm that we are on track to meet our fiscal rules:

Borrowing is forecast to be £49.9 billion this year; £8.4 billion lower than forecast at the Spring Budget.

Comment

So we received a giveaway Budget of which a lot of the giveaway was focused on the housing market. Again. Whilst some will initially gain the problem is that next time around the house prices that are being boosted will be even more unaffordable and thus more “Help” will be needed in a cycle which is so far endless. Existing home owners can continue to listen to some Hot Chocolate.

You win again

The problem is that for all the talk of rebalancing the UK economy we continue to lean towards the housing market. So whilst I welcome the efforts to boost productivity and technology they may find they are swimming against the tide. Still at least the extra maths teachers may help us in measuring productivity which may yet turn out to be the problem that never was. Also the technology issue needs to be in the right areas. I understand that one needs to provide stations to encourage use but my area has seen a considerable number of charging points for electric vehicles built in the last year or two but they are so rarely actually used.

As a last point welcome to the Ashes series of 2017 which seems to have had a fairly even start.

Core Finance TV

You can check my predictions against what happened.

http://www.corelondon.tv/uk-budget-preview-hammond-may-cash-play/

Has UK inflation peaked?

Yesterday we heard from Bank of England Chief Economist Andy Haldane.

On 3 November, I visited Greater Manchester on the latest of my Townhall tours.

He makes himself sound like a rock band doesn’t he? It is good to see him get out and about after years and indeed decades of being stuck in a bunker in the depths of the Bank of England. Although sadly for him the hopes of becoming Governor via a “man of the people” approach seem to be just hopes. I do hope that he takes the message below back to his colleagues as not only would some humility be welcome but the reality encapsulated in it would be too.

For most of the people I spoke with, small adjustments in the cost of borrowing were unlikely to have a significant impact on their daily lives.  The borrowing costs they faced for access to consumer credit were largely unaffected by changes in Bank Rate

The latter point was one of my earliest themes when I started this website which had its 7th anniversary over the weekend so you can see that our Andy is not the quickest to pick things up.

Moving to today’s theme of inflation Andy did have some thoughts for us.

It is well-known that increases in the cost of living hit hardest those on lowest incomes.  Rising inflation worsens the well-known “poverty premium” the poorest in society already face in the higher costs they pay for the everyday goods and services they buy.

I hope that Andy thought hard about the role his “Sledgehammer QE” and “muscular” monetary easing in August 2016 had in making the lot of these people worse by contributing to the fall of the UK Pound and raising UK inflation prospects. Speaking of inflation prospects what does he think now?

 Price rises across the whole economy are currently running well above the 2% inflation target and are expected to remain above-target for the next few years.

That is not cheerful stuff from Andy but there are several problems with it. Firstly you cannot forecast inflation ahead like that in the credit crunch era as for example you would have been left with egg on your face when oil prices dropped a couple of years ago. In addition Andy’s own record on forecasting or if you like Forward Guidance is poor as in his role of Chief Economist he forecasts an increase in wage inflation every year and has yet to be correct. Of course when you take out a lottery ticket like that you will eventually be correct but that ignores the years of failure.

International Trends

This mornings data set seems to indicate a clear trend although there is a lack of detail as to why Swedish inflation fell so much.

The inflation rate according to the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) was 1.7 percent in October 2017, down from 2.2 percent in September.

Germany saw a smaller decline but a decline nonetheless.

Consumer prices in Germany were 1.6% higher in October 2017 than in October 2016. The unflation rate, as measured by the consumer price index, was +1.8% in both September and August 2017.

Today’s data

This will be received in mixed fashion at the Bank of England.

The all items CPI annual rate is 3.0%, unchanged from last month.

The Governor Mark Carney will be pleased that his quill pen and foolscap paper will not be required for an explanatory letter to the Chancellor of the Exchequer whereas Andy Haldane will mull that his Forward Guidance has not started well as a rise was forecast this month.

The MPC still expects inflation to peak above 3.0% in October, as the past depreciation of sterling and recent increases in energy prices continue to pass through to consumer prices.

The factors keeping inflation up were as shown below/

In October 2017, the food category, which grew by 4.2% since October 2016, contributed 0.3 percentage points to the overall 12-month growth rate……Recreation and culture, with prices rising by 0.5% between September and October 2017, compared with a smaller rise of 0.2% a year earlier.

There was also a rise in electricity prices. On the other side of the coin we saw transport and furniture and household services pulling in a downwards fashion on the annual inflation rate.

CPIH

The additional factor in CPIH which is the addition of rents which are never paid to the owner occupied housing sector did its planed job one more time in October.

Housing and household services, where owner occupiers’ housing costs had the largest downward effect, with prices remaining unchanged between September 2017 and October 2017, having seen a particularly large increase of 0.4% in the same period a year ago.

This is essentially driven by this.

Private rental prices paid by tenants in Great Britain rose by 1.5% in the 12 months to October 2017; this is down from 1.6% in September 2017.

I would be interested to know if those who rent are seeing lower inflation but also you can see how this pulls down the annual inflation rate. Fair enough ( if accurate as our statisticians have had problems here) for those who rent but the  impact is magnified by the use of Imputed Rent for those who own their property so the measure of inflation is pulled down even more.

The OOH component annual rate is 1.6%, down from 1.9% last month.

This means that what our official statisticians call our “most comprehensive” measure tells us this.

The all items CPIH annual rate is 2.8%, unchanged from last month.

Now let me take you to a place “far,far away” where instead of fictitious prices you use real ones like those below. What do you think the effect would be?

Average house prices in the UK have increased by 5.4% in the year to September 2017 (up from 4.8% in August 2017). The annual growth rate has slowed since mid-2016 but has remained broadly around 5% during 2017.

Thus the inflation measure would be higher with the only caveat being the numbers are a month behind the others. As owner occupied housing costs are 17.4% of the measure you can see that it would have a big effect. Up is the new down that sort of thing.

The whole episode here has reflected badly on the UK statistics establishment as this new measure is mostly being ignored and CPI is used instead as this from the BBC demonstrates.

The UK’s key inflation rate remained steady at a five-and-a-half-year high of 3% in October, according to official figures.

The use of the word “key” is a dagger to the heart of the plans of the Office for National Statistics.

The trend

This mornings producer price dataset suggested that the inflation peak has passed.

The input Producer Prices Index (input PPI) grew by 4.6% in the 12 months to October 2017, down from 8.1% in the 12 months to September 2017. The output Producer Prices Index (output PPI) grew by 2.8% in the 12 months to October 2017, down from 3.3% in the 12 months to September 2017.

So there is good news there for us although awkward again for Andy Haldane. On the other side of the coin there has been around an US $5 rise in the price of Brent Crude Oil since October so that will impact the November data if it stays there. Also more political crises could weaken the Pound like they did only on Monday.

Comment

We find ourselves in the peak zone for UK inflation as we may get a nudge higher but the bulk effect of the fall in the UK Pound £ has pretty much completed now. Back in late summer 2016 I suggested that its impact would be over 1% and if we look at the numbers for Germany and Sweden today that looks to be confirmed. Last year saw monthly CPI rise by 0.2% in November and 0.5% in December as inflation rose so the threshold is higher.

However we remain in a mess as to how we calculate inflation as the Retail Price Index measure has it at 4% as opposed to 3% and of course the newer effort CPIH is at 2.8%. So a few more goes and they may record it at 0% and we could have an “unflation rate”!

I have argued against CPIH for five years now for the reasons explained today and warned the National Statistician John Pullinger of the dangers of using it earlier this year. Meanwhile former supporters such as the economics editor of the Financial Times Chris Giles ( who was on the committee which proposed CPIH) now longer seem to be keeping the faith as this indicates.

CPIH is (probably) better since it has a big proxy for housing services of owner occupiers, but with hindsight I worry occasionally that it doesn’t proxy security of tenure well. And security of tenure is a big service you acquire when buying not renting.

 

 

 

 

 

UK housing policy continues to promote ever more unaffordable prices

This week has opened with a barrage of news on the UK housing market. Whilst this is of course the equivalent of a hardy perennial there are two factors bringing it into focus. The first is that it is the UK Budget next week and the second is a weekend where a strong end to the last week for the UK Pound £ has been replaced by this.

Barclays trade of the week (short EURGBP) stopped out at Monday 0857am… ( @RANSquawk )

Is that some sort of record? As Prince would say it is a Sign O’ The Times.

One issue at play is building evidence of changes in the housing market. From Estate Agency Today.

Sellers have launched “their own sale” in response to the stagnating market by slashing asking prices according to Rightmove – but some sellers have not cut enough.

So what has happened?

The portal says sellers of homes that are new to the market have trimmed asking prices over the past month by a modest 0.8 per cent; more dramatically, 37 per cent of properties already on the market have reduced their asking prices since first being listed.

The 37 per cent figure represents the highest proportion at this time of year for five years, the portal says in its latest monthly market snapshot.

It is not the fact that there are price offers at this time of year that is unusual it is the amount of them. Also the five-year timing will be noted by the Bank of England as that takes us back to developments which influenced its decision to boost house prices with its Funding for Lending Scheme.

At the moment the situation as regarding price drops is recorded thus.

Analysis of those properties that actually sold last month after having reduced their prices shows that their average reduction between initial and last advertised asking price was also 6.3 per cent.

However the state of play in London seems rather different especially as we note this in the Guardian is from an estate agent.

Lucy Pendleton, of the London estate agent James Pendleton, said sellers in the capital are facing some particularly tough decisions. She argues that one large price cut can work better than several small ones.

As to the gap between asking prices and actual selling ones Henry Pryor helps us out.

Average asking prices measured by across the country have fallen slightly. They’re now just 27% (£84k) higher than average sale prices recorded by

LSL Acadata

This body covers all transactions including those for cash and tells us this.

The slowdown in prices continued into October, with values flat over the month and up 0.8% on an annual basis. This is the slowest growth since March 2012, and at £298,438 prices are now roughly level with November 2016.

The driver of the slow down is very familiar.

London continues to weigh on the market, with the decline in prices there (now 2.4% annually) dampening growth substantially though. Prices fell more slowly in September than the previous month, down 0.3%. The average house in the capital remains at £583,598, despite a fall of £14,250 over the year.

Government Policy

We have had various suggestions and hints from ministers over the past couple of months but this morning has brought this in the Financial Times.

UK chancellor Philip Hammond is drawing up plans to help first-time buyers in his Budget later this month, in an attempt to show the government is getting to grips with the housing crisis.

Having opened this piece with a mention of hardy perennials we have one which blooms very regularly in the UK which is what the UK government will badge as help for first time buyers. I would imagine that many of you will be able to guess what form this will take before reading the details below.

The chancellor is preparing a stamp duty cut for first-time buyers as a signal that the Conservative party understands the widespread resentment felt by those locked out of the housing market because of high prices, according to government aides………The Treasury regards a stamp duty cut for first-time buyers, which might be introduced for a temporary period, as one way to address a growing feeling of inter-generational unfairness in Britain.

There are more than a few begged questions in that but let us for the moment move on whilst noting the changes at play.

This problem is exemplified by how younger people are struggling to follow in the footsteps of their parents by buying their own homes. The number of homeowners under the age of 45 in England has dropped by 904,000 since the Conservatives entered government in 2010: down from 4.46m in that year to 3.56m in 2015-2016, according to data from the Department for Communities and Local Government.

Also this is an intriguing way of looking at the likely impact which also points out the wide variation in average house prices around the UK.

Lucian Cook, head of residential research at Savills, an estate agency, said any cut in stamp duty for first-time buyers would primarily benefit those purchasing homes in London and south-east England. Stamp duty is not payable on properties worth less than £125,000, and Mr Cook highlighted how the average price for a first-time buyer in Yorkshire was just over £125,000.

So a response to house price falls in London? We have been wondering on here how long that might take….

Bring me a higher love

The hardy perennial theme continues as I note this from City-AM.

Writing to the chancellor, an influential group of housing associations urged Hammond to allow developers to extend the height of properties without having to secure planning permission.

Under the “build up not out” plan, championed by Tory MP John Penrose, developers would be able to increase a building’s height so it matched the tallest building in its neighbourhood, or the height of surrounding trees.

The supply of homes is of course an issue in the UK although of course developers have quite a vested interest in being able to build higher as I recall the Yes Prime Minister episode that referred to this. Those who live next door may not be quite so keen so care is needed.

Comment

There is a clear problem with two possible government policies which is the proposed expansion of Help To Buy we looked at back on the 2nd of October and today’s Stamp Duty cut. This is that moves which are badged as help are tactically true but strategic disasters. What I mean by this is that the person helped gains at that moment but that fades away as we note that these moves are not only associated with but cause ever higher house prices. Sometimes they are priced  straight in and people may be being helped to buy at the top of the market signified by the ever higher multiple of income required. This of course then requires even more help to stop house prices falling as the cycle repeats so far endlessly.

An irony is that a Stamp Duty cut would also damage one of the better revenue areas for the government in recent times. From the FT.

The Treasury’s receipts from stamp duty surged to a record high of £11.77bn in 2016-17, up 10 per cent per cent compared with the previous year.

There are regular debates about taxation and the apparent impossibility in more than a few areas of increasing it. Well Stamp Duty has not been one of them and has seen increasing flows to the UK Exchequer.

The issue of raising housing supply seems much better founded than raising demand. But it is problematic for the current Chancellor of the Exchequer as whilst it is welcome I think to see someone who is not just a career politician owning businesses which are in property development and construction raises a moral hazard question. Approving changes which benefit you personally is not a good look especially when the developers have benefited from the whole Help To Buy era.

Also if we look back to October 23rd there was this.

The government should borrow money to fund the building of hundreds of thousands of new homes, a cabinet minister says.

Communities Secretary Sajid Javid said taking advantage of record-low interest rates “can be the right thing if done sensibly”.

If Mr.Javid was a Chelsea footballer it would appear that he has been sent to Vitesse Arnhem on loan maybe permanently.

Meanwhile there is news from the Bank of England that house buyers have had the advantage even before it existed.

 

 

 

Why are we told some inflation is good for us?

A major topic in the world of economics is the subject of inflation which has been brought into focus by the events of the past 2/3 years or so. First we had the phase where a fall in the price of crude oil filtered through the system such that official consumer inflation across many countries fell to zero per cent on an annual basis and in some cases below that. If you recall that led to the deflation scare or it you will excuse the capitals what much of the media presented as a DEFLATION scare. We were presented with a four horsemen of the apocalypse style scenario where lower and especially negative inflation would take us to a downwards spiral where wages and economic activity fell as well along the line of this from R.E.M.

It’s the end of the world as we know it.
It’s the end of the world as we know it.

I coined the phrase “deflation nutter” to cover this because as I pointed out, Greece the subject of yesterday suffered from quite a few policy errors pushing it into depression and that on the other side of the coin for all its problems Japan had survived years and indeed decades of 0% inflation. Indeed on the 29th of January 2015 I wrote an article on here explaining how lower consumer inflation was boosting consumption across a range of countries via the positive effect it was having on real wages.

 if we look at the retail-sectors in the UK,Spain and Ireland we see that price falls are so far being accompanied by volume gains and as it happens by strong volume gains. This could not contradict conventional economic theory much more clearly. If the history of the credit crunch is any guide many will try to ignore reality and instead cling to their prized and pet theories but I prefer reality ever time.

 

Relative prices

The comfortable cosy world of central bankers and theoretical economists told us and indeed continues to tell us that we need positive inflation so that relative prices can change. That leads us to the era of inflation targets which are mostly set at 2% per annum although of course there is a regular cry for inflation targets to be raised. However 2015/16 torpedoed their ship as if we just look at the basic change we saw a large relative price adjustment for crude oil leading to adjustments directly to other energy costs and a lot of other changes. Ooops! Even worse for the theory we saw two large sectors of the economy respond in opposite fashion. A clear example of this was provided by my own country the UK where services inflation barely changed and ironically for a period of deflation paranoia was quite often above the inflation target. But the goods sector saw substantial disinflation as it was it that pulled the overall measure down to around 0%.

We can bring this up to date by looking at the latest data from the Statistics Bureau in Japan.

  The consumer price index for Ku-area of Tokyo in October 2017 (preliminary) was 100.1 (2015=100), down 0.2% over the year before seasonal adjustment, and down 0.1% from the previous month on a seasonally adjusted basis.

So not only is there no inflation here there has not been any for some time. Yet the latest monthly update tells us that food prices fell by 2.4% on an annual basis and the sector including energy fuel and lighting rose by 7.1%. Please remember that the next time the Ivory Towers start to chant their “we need inflation so relative prices can adjust” mantra.

Reality

This is that central banks are in the main failing to reach their inflation targets. For example if we look at the US economy the Federal Reserve targets the PCE ( Personal Consumption Expenditure) inflation measure which was running at an annual rate of 1.6% in September and even that level required an 11.1% increase in energy prices.

So we see central banks and establishments responding to this of which the extreme is often to be found in Japan. From @lemasabachthani yesterday.

JAPAN PM AIDE HONDA: INAPPROPRIATE TO REAPPOINT BOJ GOV KURODA, BOJ NEEDS NEW LEADERSHIP TO ACHIEVE 2 PCT INFLATION TARGET

Poor old Governor Kuroda whose turning of the Bank of Japan into the Tokyo Whale was proving in his terms at least to be quite a success. From the Financial Times.

Trading was at its most eye-catching in Japan. Tokyo’s Topix index touched its highest level since November 1991, only to end down on the day after a volatile session. At its peak, the index reached the fresh high of 1,844.05 with gains across almost all major segments, taking it more than 20 per cent higher for the year to date. But it faded back in late trade to close at 1,817.75.

It makes me wonder what any proposed new Governor would be expected to do?! QE for what else?

Whereas in this morning’s monthly bulletin the ECB ( European Central Bank) has told us this.

Following the decision made on 26 October 2017 the monthly pace will be further reduced to €30 billion from January 2018 and net purchases will be carried out until September 2018. The recalibration of the APP reflects growing confidence in the gradual convergence of inflation rates towards the ECB’s inflation aim, on account of
the increasingly robust and broad-based economic expansion, an uptick in measures of underlying inflation and the continued effective pass-through of the Governing
Council’s policy measures to the financing conditions of the real economy.

So we see proposals for central banking policy lost in  a land of confusion as the US tightens, the Euro area eases a little less and yet again the establishment in Japan cries for more, more, more.

Comment

There is a lot to consider here as we mull a world of easy and in some cases extraordinarily easy monetary policy with what is in general below target inflation. Of course there are exceptions like Venezuela which as far as you can measure it seems to have an inflation rate of the order of 2000% + . But in general such places are importing inflation via a lower currency exchange rate which means that someone else’s is reduced. Also we need to note that 2017 is looking like a good year for economic growth as this morning’s forecasts from the European Commission indicate.

The euro area economy is on track to grow at its fastest pace in a decade this year, with real GDP growth forecast at 2.2%. This is substantially higher than expected in spring (1.7%)……..at 2.1% in 2018 and at 1.9% in 2019.

So then of course you need an excuse for easy monetary policy which is below target inflation! Of course this ignores two technical problems. The first is that at the moment if we get inflation it is mostly from a higher oil price as we mull the likely effects of Brent Crude Oil which has moved into the US $60s. The second is that there is inflation to be found if you look at asset prices as whilst some of the equity market highs we keep seeing is genuine some of it is simply where all the QE has gone. Also there is the issue of house prices where even in the Euro area they are growing at an annual rate of 3.8% so if they were in an inflation index even more questions would be asked about monetary policy.

In a world where wages growth is not only subdued but has clearly shifted onto a lower plane the obsession with raising inflation will simply make the ordinary person worse off via its effect on real wages. Sadly this impact is usually hardest on the poorest.

Me on Core Finance TV

http://www.corelondon.tv/uk-housing-market-house-party-keeps-going/

 

 

 

What can we expect from UK house prices looking forwards?

Today gives us another chance to take a look at the state of play in the UK housing market. This comes in the light of a couple of potential ch-ch-changes in the policy of the Bank of England of which the headline was last week’s rise in Bank Rate to 0.5% although of course that was only a rise from a “panic” back to an emergency level. More of that later as we look at the data from the Halifax which used to be a building society but is now part of the Lloyds Banking Group.

House prices rose by 0.3% between September and October, following a 0.8% increase in September. The average price of £225,826 is the highest on record and 2.8% higher than in January (£219,741).

The first impact is that house prices continue to rise in spite of what has become a more difficult environment for them with economic growth in annual terms having slowed and real wages having fallen so far in 2017. Indeed according to the Halifax things have a hint of a pick- up.

House prices in the last three months (August-October) were 2.3% higher than in the previous three months (May-July). This is the fastest price growth, on this measure, since January.  Prices in the three months to October were 4.5% higher than in the same three months a year earlier. The annual rate in October is higher than in September (4.0%) and at its highest growth rate since February.

The average price being the highest on record means that in terms of real wages house prices have risen by around 3% if you use the official inflation figure and they have risen slightly more than wages on their own. I was expecting things to slow down more in 2017 and whilst time is left as Muse would put it “Time is running out”.

There are some hints of a slow down as for example this.

Both new sales instructions and buyer enquiries fall in September. Shortage of homes for sale continues
to limit activity with the balance of new sales instructions for home sales falling for the 19th consecutive month
in September.

Also it looks as though sentiment is seeing some shifting sands.

Despite the recent rise in house prices confidence in UK house prices has fallen to its lowest level since
December 2012, according to the latest Halifax Housing Market Confidence Tracker. The survey, which
tracks House Price Optimism (HPO1 – consumer sentiment on whether house prices will be higher or lower in a
year’s time – has dropped 14 points from April 2017 (+44) to October (+30), matching the record fall seen
following the EU referendum result.
The HPO index has also fallen by 38 points since the peak of +68 in May 2015 around the time of the General
Election

Bank of England

Last week brought us not only a Bank Rate rise to 0.5% but also this from Governor Carney.

I stressed in my opening remarks, our forecast is conditioned on a market curve which has two
additional rate increases over the forecast horizon, and we, in fact, need those two additional rate
increases in order to get that return of inflation to target.

So we received Forward Guidance that two more interest-rate increases can be expected to raise Bank Rate to 1% although they were some way in the distance and therefore may even be beyond his term as Governor which ends in the summer of 2019. Thus the guidance was not only rather weak and insipid it would bring one of the weakest interest-rate rise cycles the UK has ever seen especially as we note that the current expansion is mature so a recession of some sort is likely in the time frame.

This meant that some mortgage-rates did change as this from Lloyds Banking Group indicates others may not.

  • Lloyds Bank Homeowner Variable Rate currently at 3.74% will increase by 0.25% to 3.99%
  • Lloyds Standard Variable Rate currently at 2.25% will increase by 0.25% to 2.50%
  • Lloyds Buy to-let Variable Rate currently at 4.59% will increase by 0.25% to 4.84%

The others may not above, comes from the fact that a benchmark or guide to fixed-rate mortgages is the five-year Gilt yield which as I pointed out on Friday fell rather than rose. At 0.71% it is 0.11% below where it was pre announcement.

If we look ahead to 2018 we expect another of the legs supporting UK house prices to begin to weaken somewhat. Here is the letter from the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the subject  of the Term Funding Scheme.

I am therefore willing to authorise an increase
in the total size of the APF used to finance the TFS from £100 billion to £115 billion, in line with the current profile of TFS drawings and based on a drawdown window that will close at the end of February 2018.

So we see two things here. Firstly we get a clue as to how house price growth has carried on in 2017 as we note that draw down of this bank subsidy has been faster than expected leading to the potential increase. I also wonder if this announcement was a sot of “come and get it the waters’ lovely” to the banks? If we move on to the letter from Governor Carney we see that beneath all the rhetoric and hot air about business lending that reality is very different.

New loan rates have declined substantially over the past year and so has the rate charged on the stock of Standard Variable Rate mortgages.

So we have a confession that the Bank of England gave house prices another push and that it put out a “last call” to the banks for cheap funding in August, But as we look ahead the doors close next February so from then the stock will exist but then begin to fade as new flows stop. Is the objective to try to keep some sort of party going until the end of the Governor’s term?

Regional Differences

If we move to the official data series we see that as we disaggregate by country we begin to see wide variations.

 the average price in England now £244,000. Wales saw house prices increase by 3.4% over the last 12 months to stand at £150,000. In Scotland, the average price increased by 3.9% over the year to stand at £146,000. The average price in Northern Ireland currently stands at £129,000, an increase of 4.4% over the year to Quarter 2 (Apr to June) 2017.

The situation in Northern Ireland was particularly different to much of the UK as the previous peak was at £225,000 showing how house prices there hit something of a nuclear winter between the autumn of 2007 and the spring of 2013 when the average price dipped below £100,000. If you switch to Euros then prices in Northern Ireland fell more than in the south.

If we move onto borough or county comparisons it is hard to put these two in the same solar system let alone island.

In August 2017, the most expensive borough to live in was Kensington and Chelsea, where the cost of an average house was £1.2 million. In contrast, the cheapest area to purchase a property was Blaenau Gwent, where an average house cost £82,000.

Comment

As we look back on 2017 so far we see that the Bank of England until last week was full steam ahead in terms of propping up house prices. Last week was a change albeit a minor one in the grand scheme of things and will be backed up by the end of the Term Funding Scheme next February. However the government seems to be singing to a different beat as this from the 2nd of October makes clear.

The government will find an extra £10bn for the Help to Buy scheme to let another 135,000 people get on the property ladder, Theresa May has said.

It is hard not to think of the game snakes and ladders at this point. But I still continue with the view that house price growth should slow and probably go negative on a national level. In some places that is very welcome with London to the fore in others such as Northern Ireland less so but it will be a while anyway before things filter out to there. Meanwhile I am also reminded of this from the 17th of October.

Buyers of a Notting Hill mansion going on sale this month for £17 million will have to pay in Bitcoin, in what is believed to be a first for London.

The owners of the six-storey stucco-fronted home near Portobello Roadwill accept only the digital currency as payment and will not take cash.

At the current exchange rate the price is equivalent to about 5,050 bitcoin,

You see it is more like 3120 Bitcoin now. So have we seen house price disinflation and indeed deflation in Notting Hill Bitcoin style?

 

 

Can the economic renaissance in France fix its unemployment problem?

Today gives us an opportunity to take a closer look at one of the running themes of this website which is the economy of France. It also gives an opportunity to look at the other side of the coin as its performance in 2017 so far has exceeded that of the UK. Indeed if you believe the media it is Usain Bolt to our Eddie the Eagle. So let us go straight to this morning’s economic growth release.

In Q3 2017, gross domestic product (GDP) in volume terms* kept increasing: +0.5%, after +0.6% in Q2……GDP growth estimate for Q2 2017 is slightly revised upward (+0.1 points), in particular with the update of seasonal adjustment coefficients.

There are two clear changes here for France and the first is simply the higher numbers seen. The next is the stability of them as France did produce quarterly growth at this sort of level but then always fell back sometimes substantially in subsequent quarters. This time around France has gone 0.6%,0.5%,0.6% and now 0.5% which is well within any margins of measurement error. This has led to this.

In comparison with Q3 2016, GDP rose by 2.2%; such a growth rate had not been observed since 2011.

This is good news but it does come with perspective as it reminds us how poorly France performed pre 2017 and in particular how its economic growth was knocked back by the Euro area crisis. It did grow but mostly at a crawl.

The detail

The good news is that investment remains strong.

total gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) remained dynamic (+0.8% after +1.0%).

However the economic dream of investment and net trade rising stalled somewhat.

The foreign trade balance contributed negatively to GDP growth (−0.6 points after +0.6 points): imports accelerated sharply (+2.5% after +0.2%) while exports decelerated significantly (+0.7% after +2.3%).

In fact economic growth relied mostly on consumption and rises in inventories.

Household consumption expenditure slightly accelerated (+0.5% after +0.3%) …….changes in inventories contributed positively to GDP growth (+0.5 points after −0.5 points).

The inventory position can be read two ways. The positive view is that it is in anticipation of further economic expansion and the less positive one is that it signals some slowing.

Another factor we may need to watch is the one below as the UK is far from alone in seeing car registrations dip in recent months.

In particular, it (exports) fell back in transport equipment (−0.5% after +6.2%).

I also note that France is also shifting towards a services based economy.

In August 2017, output increased sharply again in services (+1.0% after +1.3% in July).

Prospects

The official survey is still good ( above 100) albeit not quite as good as previously.

In October 2017, the business climate has weakened slightly after a steady improvement for a year. The composite indicator, compiled from the answers of business managers in the main sectors, has lost one point (109) after eight months of rise.

This leads to welcome hopes for a troubled area of the French economy.

In October 2017, the employment climate has risen for the second consecutive month…….The associated composite indicator has gained two points to 109, clearly above its long-term mean.

The PMI ( Purchasing Managers Index) compiled by Markit could hardly be much more bullish.

Flash France Composite Output Index(1) at 57.5 in October (77-month high) ……According to latest flash data, the resurgence in the French private sector showed no sign of abating at the start of the fourth quarter

They were even more bullish on employment prospects.

Buoyed by strong client demand, private sector firms continued to take on additional staff members in October, extending the latest period of job creation to 12 months. Moreover, the rate of  growth was the most marked in just shy of ten-anda-half years (May 2007).

Unemployment

This has been the Achilles heel of the French economy for some time as its sclerotic rate of economic growth has meant there has been little progress in reducing unemployment.

In Q2 2017, the ILO unemployment rate in metropolitan France decreased slightly, by 0.1 percentage points. The employment rate and the activity rate increased by 0.5 percentage points. The unemployment rate in France stood at 9.5% of active population in Q2 2017.

Indeed some countries have unemployment rates similar to the long-term unemployment rate in France.

The long-term unemployment rate stood at 4.0% of active population in Q2 2017

Youth unemployment disappointingly rose to 22.7% in the quarter.

So there is plenty of work for the improved economic situation to do in this area and the survey results indicate that it is ongoing. However we do have a more up to date number from Eurostat this morning showing the unemployment rate rising from 9.6% in June to 9.7% in July, August and September.

Inflation

The good news is that there is not much of this to be found in France.

Over a year, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) should increase by 1.1% in October 2017, after +1.0% in the previous month, according to the provisional estimate made at the end of the month.

One worrying area is this “an acceleration in food prices ” which were 4.5% higher than a year before. How much of that is due to the issue pointed out by Bloomberg below is not specified.

France’s much-loved croissant au beurre has run up against the forces of global markets.

Finding butter for the breakfast staple has become a challenge across France. Soaring global demand and falling supplies have boosted butter prices, and with French supermarkets unwilling to pay more for the dairy product, producers are taking their wares across the border. That has left the French, the world’s biggest per-capita consumers of butter, short of a key ingredient for their sauces and tarts.

We do know that prices have surged at the wholesale level.

Global butter prices have almost tripled to 7,000 euros ($8,144) a ton from 2,500 euros in 2016, according to Agritel, an Paris-based farming consultancy.

Comment

This year has seen a welcome return to form for the French economy. Let us hope that it can continue it as it has seen a weak run. Todays data release shows us that GDP ( base 2010) was at 511.1 billion Euros in the first quarter of 2012 but only rose by 18.4 billion Euros to the third quarter of 2016 before rising by 11.7 billion in the next year. France did not suffer as directly from the Euro area crisis as some countries but it was affected. One impact of that was the way that its national debt to GDP ratio has risen to 99.2% so it will be hoping that the current growth spurt stops it reaching and then moves it away from 100%.

The European Central Bank has put its shoulder to the wheel in terms of monetary policy which has helped France in various ways. The large purchases of French government bonds which total 345.6 billion Euros have helped the public finances by reducing the cost of debt. Also the advent of an official interest-rate which is negative ( deposit rate -0.4%) indicates a very easy monetary policy. The catch here is how and we should add if the ECB can reverse course as we see that a Euro area which is now doing well ( this morning annual GDP growth has been announced at 2.5%) has a negative official interest-rate and ongoing asset purchases which are only slowly being reduced. After all monetary policy has leads and lags meaning that in general it needs to be set for around 18 months time rather than now.

Moving onto comparing with the UK then the quarterly growth rate is only marginally higher but the annual one is much better for France. Prospects for the immediate future look good and maybe there is an area where we are becoming more similar.

Overall, house prices increased by 3.5% yo-y in Q2 2017, after +2.7% in Q1 2017.

Happy Halloween to you.