Where next for interest-rates and bond yields?

As we find ourselves in a phase where possible solutions to the Covid-19 pandemic are in the news, the economic consequences for 2021 are optimistic. For example, it looks as though it will mean the type of Lockdown the UK is experiencing will get less and less likely. That is a relief as the issue of the Lockdown strategy is that you end up in a repeating loop. The more hopeful reality does have potential consequences for interest-rates and some of this has been highlighted by Reuters.

LONDON (Reuters) – Expectations of interest rate cuts in some of the world’s biggest economies have melted within the space of a month on hopes a successful coronavirus vaccine will fuel a growth bounceback next year.

Why? Well in line with this from Bank of England Chief Economist Andy Haldane yesterday.

LONDON (Reuters) – Bank of England Chief Economist Andy Haldane said the economic outlook for 2021 was “materially brighter” than he had expected just a few weeks ago despite short-term uncertainty from a renewed COVID-19 lockdown in England.

Except as you can see the changes are in fact really rather minor in the broad scheme of things.

Between Nov. 5-9, a period when it became clear Democrat Joe Biden had won the U.S. election and Pfizer announced its vaccine news, eurodollar futures, which track short-term U.S. rate expectations, flipped to reflect expectations of 10 bps in rate hikes by Sept 2022.

Just the previous week, markets were predicting no changes. Futures now expect U.S. rates at 0.50% by September 2023, from 0.25% forecast a month previously.

At the ECB where rates are already minus 0.5%, a nine bps cut was expected by September 2021 but that is now slashed to only five bps.

After all the interest-rate cuts we see that the US is expected to increase interest-rates by a mere 0.25% over the next 3 years. That is a bit thin if you note the promises of economic recovery. But it is in line with one of my main themes which are that interest-rate cuts are for the now and are large whereas interest-rate rises are for some future date and are much smaller if they happen at all. For example Bank of England Governor Mark Carney provided Forward Guidance for interest-rate increases in the summer of 2013. It is hard not to laugh as I type that his next move was to cut them! There was a rise some 5 years or so later to above the original “emergency” level of 0.5% which rather contrasts with the cuts seen in March.

As to the ECB which hasn’t has any increases at all since 2011 there has been this today by its President Christine Lagarde.

While all options are on the table, the pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP) and our targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTROs) have proven their effectiveness in the current environment and can be dynamically adjusted to react to how the pandemic evolves.

So Definitely Maybe, although these days interest-rate cuts may not be widely announced as for example the present TLTROs allow banks access to funds at -1% as opposed to the more general -0.5% of the Deposit Rate.

Meanwhile

I did point out earlier that interest-rate cuts are for the here and now and they seem to be rather en vogue this morning starting early in the Pacific region.

BI Board of Governors Meeting (RDG) in November 2020 decided to lower the BI 7-Day Reverse Repo Rate (BI7DRR) by 25 bps to 3.75%, as well as the Deposit Facility and Lending Facility rates which fell by 25 bps, to 3.00% and 4.50%.

Bank Indonesia did not have to wait long for company as the central bank of the Philippines was in hot pursuit.

At its meeting on monetary policy today, the Monetary Board decided to cut the interest rate on the BSP’s overnight reverse repurchase facility by 25 basis points to 2.0 percent, effective Friday, 20 November 2020. The interest rates on the overnight deposit and lending facilities were likewise reduced to 1.5 percent and 2.5 percent, respectively.

Perhaps the Bank of  Russia fears missing out.

Russian Central Bank: Monetary Policy To Remain Accommodative In 2021…….Russian Central Bank: See Room For Further Rate Cuts But Not That Big.

Probably they are emboldened by the recent rise in the oil price which is a major issue for the Russian economy.

Indonesia

We looked at the Pacific region back in 2019 as an area especially affected by the “trade war” between the US and China. Some of that looks set to fade with the new US President but the Pacific now has another one.

China is digging in its heels as the trade spat between Canberra and Beijing continues, with officials laying responsibility for the tensions solely at Australia’s feet. ( ABC)

As well as the interest-rate cut Bank Indonesia is working to reduce bond yields.

As of 17 November 2020, Bank Indonesia has purchased SBN on the primary market through a market mechanism in accordance with the Joint Decree of the Minister of Finance and the Governor of Bank Indonesia dated April 16, 2020, amounting to IDR 72.49 trillion, including the main auction scheme, the Greenshoe Option (GSO) and Private Placement.

Primary purchases are unusual especially for an emerging market and another 385 trillion IDR have been bought via other forms of QE.

Philippines

The central bank gives us a conventional explanation around inflation as a starter.

Latest baseline forecasts continue to indicate a benign inflation environment over the policy horizon, with inflation expectations remaining firmly anchored within the target range of 2-4 percent. Average inflation is seen to settle within the lower half of the target band for 2020 up to 2022, reflecting slower domestic economic activity, lower global crude oil prices, and the recent appreciation of the peso. The balance of risks to the inflation outlook also remains tilted toward the downside owing largely to potential disruptions to domestic and global economic activity amid the ongoing pandemic.

But we all know that the main course is this.

Meanwhile, uncertainty remains elevated amid the resurgence of COVID-19 cases globally. However, the Monetary Board also observed that global economic prospects have moderated in recent weeks. At the same time, the Monetary Board noted that while domestic output contracted at a slower pace in the third quarter of 2020, muted business and household sentiment and the impact of recent natural calamities could pose strong headwinds to the recovery of the economy in the coming months.

Comment

As you can see the story about the end of interest-rate cuts has already hit trouble. Central bankers seem unable to break their addiction. I will have to do a proper count again but I am pretty sure we have now had around 780 interest-rate cuts in the credit crunch era. So it seems that the muzak played on the central bank loudspeakers will keep this particular status quo for a while yet.

Get down deeper and down
Down down deeper and down
Down down deeper and down
Get down deeper and down.

There are issues as I noted on the 11th of this month as all the fiscal stimuli puts upward pressure on interest-rates. But the threshold for interest-rate cuts is far lower than for rises. Also we get cuts at warp speed whereas rises have Chief Engineer Scott telling us that the engines “cannae take it”

Putting it another way we have another example of a bipolar world where there may be drivers for higher interest-rates but the central banksters much prefer to cut them.This gets more complex as we see so many countries with or near negative interest-rates and bond yields.

The Emerging Markets Problem and debt jubilees

Some familiar topics are doing the rounds and making a few headlines and today I shall use the focus of the problems of many of what are called Emerging Markets to focus in on them. So let me open with the issue of the apparent lust for US Dollars that keeps popping up and return to an issue we analysed on the 18th of March.

*Bank Indonesia Governor Says New York Fed Will Provide $60B Repo Line ( @VPatelFX )

So we see another country on its way into the US Federal Reserve liquidity swaps club so let us ask the Carly Simon question which is why?

Indonesia’s foreign exchange (forex) reserves dropped US$9.4 billion in March to $121 billion as Bank Indonesia (BI) stepped up market intervention to stabilize the rupiah exchange rate amid heavy capital outflows, according to the central bank.

Forex reserves have continued to decrease since February,  when they dropped from $131.7 billion in January, the second-highest level in the country’s history. March’s figure is enough to support seven months of imports and payments of the government’s short-term debts and is above the international adequacy standard of about three months of imports. ( Jakarta Post

Di you notice how Bank Indonesia reports its foreign currency reserves in US Dollars? That is a slap in the face for those reporting its hegemony is over and as an opening salvo confirms the issue at hand. The secondary issue is that the level of foreign exchange reserves is only $10 billion below the second highest ever and yet if not panic stations there are clear worries. Next comes something I have pointed out before when a crisis hits it is the rate of change of reserves which worries people more than the size left. So in fact only a certain percentage of reserves are what one might call “usable” in that you them have to do something else as well. Finally we get to the nub of the issue which is how long you can pay for your imports and finance your debts. Of course borrowing in US Dollars in size is something that is on our checklist of trouble as well.

The Jakarta Post goes onto point out that the heat is on.

The fear has induced capital outflow and amplified exchange rate pressures on the rupiah, especially in the second and third week of March 2020,” BI wrote in a statement on Tuesday.

The rupiah lost around 15 percent of its value against the dollar in March as investors rushed to sell riskier assets and flock to safe haven assets amid fears over COVID-19’s rapid spread.

Also on March 19th I did point out that QE ( Quantitative Easing) seems to be spreading everywhere.

The central bank has purchased Rp 172.5 trillion in government bonds, including Rp 166.2 trillion from foreign investors in the secondary market.

Indeed if we switch to Fitch Ratings this morning another response to this crisis is the beginning of what is literal printing money.

Another extraordinary measure is the decision to give Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank, the authority to buy government securities in the primary market…….However, the move raises a number of risks, including central bank financing of the fiscal deficit (which could increase the monetary base and raise inflationary expectations), increased political interference in monetary policy decision-making and the erosion of the market’s ability to price Indonesian public debt.

As a counterpoint the extent of the crisis is shown by the fact that by one metric Indonesia has been quite conservative in economic terms.

 We believe that the fiscal loosening will push general government (GG) debt to a peak of 37% of GDP in 2022, from about 30% in 2019,

As an aside it is interesting that Bank Indonesia will be applying QE at an interest-rate of 4.5% I will be looking later at how they account for that as it is a long way from ZIRP or around 0%.

Argentina

On the 19th of March the International Monetary Fund summarised a grim situation as follows.

Since July 2019, the peso has depreciated by over 40 percent, sovereign spreads have risen by
over 2700 basis points , net international
reserves fell by half, and real GDP contracted more
than previously anticipated. As a result, gross public
debt rose to nearly 90 percent of GDP at end-2019,
13 percentage points higher than projected at the
time of the Fourth Review.

A 27% increase in sovereign spreads! This was all very different from the words of Christine Lagarde when she was managing director of the IMF.

These efforts are starting to yield results, and should lay the foundation for the return of confidence and growth.

That was then and this is now or rather the Buenos Aires Times from yesterday.

The government has issued a decree to postpone close to US$10 billion in dollar-denominated debt payments issued under local law, cancelling all such actions until the end of the year.

The move, which should relieve pressure on payments due this year, does not impact Argentina’s wider bid to restructure around US$70-billion worth of debt in foreign currency issued under international law.

So it is the dollar denominated debt which sings along with Lindsey Buckingham.

I should run on the double
I think I’m in trouble,
I think I’m in trouble.

I would have thought that reporters in Argentina would be familiar with the concept of default but apparently not.

Some experts warned that the move could be interpreted by creditors as putting Argentina in “technical default,” as it implies a change in the conditions under which those bonds were issued.

Anyway a sign of the trouble Argentina is in is show by two separate factors. Firstly how much it saves.

And by allowing the government to save some US$8.5 billion in local payments this year, it could actually be a boon for holders of foreign-law debt by freeing up cash.

Secondly it has tried to avoid affecting these foreign bonds presumably knowing that just like The Terminator “I’ll be back”

Argentina has already been unilaterally delaying payments on some peso-denominated debt, even as it kept current on overseas obligations and embarked on restructuring talks over its overseas notes.

Comment

We have looked at two different ends of the spectrum today as we see why so many what we call Emerging Markets are in trouble. There are quite a few metrics where Indonesia is strong but the US Dollar is making it creak and of course poor Argentina is at the basket case end of the spectrum. Indeed I rarely quite from Zerohedge but this is a masterpiece.

There is a saying: three things in life are certain: death, taxes and another Argentina default.

Also it reminds me of something that bemused me at the time as I note this from the 21st of May last year.

The 100 year bond is trading at 68.5, but I suppose you have 98 or so years left to get back to 100.

They still have 97 or so years to go but with a price of 28.5 now a lot further to go.

The pressure is leading to two suggestions. Firstly from DebtJubilee.

Borrower governments have it within their power to stop making debt payments but they should not suffer any penalties for doing so. All lenders should therefore agree to the immediate cancellation of debt payments falling due in 2020, with no accrual of interest and charges and no penalties.

It has its strengths but ignores what happens to those who were relying on the interest payments as you may simply be kicking the problem can elsewhere.

There is also this from the Brookings Institute.

Last week, we put forward a proposal for a major issuance of the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) as a key tool to attack the worldwide spread of the financial fallout. In essence, we proposed that IMF members agree to an allocation of the equivalent of at least $500 billion as part of the global response to the crisis generated by the corona virus pandemic.

The catch is that you can create money as this does. But there are two problems that immediately occur to me. If you have more money but as we stand fewer goods and services you are solving one problem by creating another ( inflation) for others. That may be asset inflation ( look at equity markets right now) more than consumer inflation. Next is the way that non elected bodies get power and distribute it, who are they responsible too?

 

There are major problems brewing in the Pacific for the world economy

It has been something of an economic tenet for a while now that the most dynamic part of the world economy is to be found in the Pacific region. However the credit crunch era has thrown up all sorts of challenges to what were established ideas and it is doing so again right now. The particular issue is what was supposed to be a strength which is trade and we saw another worrying sign on Wednesday.

The Monetary Policy Board of the Bank of Korea decided today to lower the Base Rate by 25 basis points, from 1.50% to 1.25%.

That is South Korea as we continue our journey past 750 interest-rate cuts in the credit crunch era. Here is their answer to Carly Simon’s famous question, why?

Economic growth in Korea has continued to slow. Private consumption has slowed somewhat, while investment has remained weak. Exports have sustained their sluggish trend as the export prices of semiconductors, petroleum products and chemicals have continued to fall amid the weakening of global trade.

So we see that the economy has been hit by trade issues and that unsurprisingly this has hit investment but also that it has fed through into domestic consumption. Next we got further confirmation that they are blaming trade as we wonder what is Korean for Johnny Foreigner?

Affected mainly by worsening global economic conditions, the growth of the Korean economy is expected to fall back below the July projection…….. The downside risks include a spread of  global trade disputes, a heightening of geopolitical risks and a deepening global
economic slowdown.

We also see that the Korean government has already acted.

Among the upside risks to the growth outlook are an improvement in domestic demand thanks to a strengthening of government policies to shore up the economy and progress in US-China trade negotiations.

 

Quarterly economic growth has been erratic so far this year but Xinhuanet gives us an idea of the trend.

From a year earlier, the real GDP grew 2 percent in the second quarter. It was lower than an increase of 2.8 percent for the same quarter of 2017 and a growth of 2.9 percent for the same quarter of 2018.

Singapore

On the one hand the outlook is supposed to be bright.

Singapore has knocked the United States out of the top spot in the World Economic Forum’s annual competitiveness report. The index, published on Wednesday, takes stock of an economy’s competitive landscape, measuring factors such as macroeconomic stability, infrastructure, the labor market and innovation capability. ( CNN )

The good cheer was not repeated in this from the Monetary Authority of Singapore on Monday.

According to the Advance Estimates released by the Ministry of Trade and Industry today, the Singapore economy grew by 0.1% year-on-year in Q3 2019, similar to the preceding quarter. In the last six months, the drag on GDP growth exerted by the manufacturing sector has intensified, reflecting the ongoing downturn in the global electronics cycle as well as the pullback in investment spending, caused in part by the uncertainty in US-China relations.

They are very sharp with the GDP number perhaps helped by being a City state. The future does not look too bright either if we look through the rhetoric.

On the whole, Singapore’s GDP growth is projected to come in at around the mid-point of the 0–1% forecast range in 2019 and improve modestly in 2020.

The Straits Times has fone a heroic job trying to make the data below look positive.

Non-oil domestic exports (Nodx) fell by 8.1 per cent in September, a somewhat better showing than the 9 percent fall in August, according to data released by Enterprise Singapore on Thursday (Oct 17).

This was the third month in a row where shipments improved, and the August figure – revised downwards from the 8.9 per cent fall previously reported – also marked a return to single-digit territory after five consecutive months of double-digit declines.

But many eyes will have turned to this bit.

Electronics products weighed down Nodx, shrinking 24.8 per cent year-on-year in September, following a 25.9 per cent contraction in August.

China

This morning has brought the news we were pretty much expecting.

China’s economic growth slowed in the third quarter amid weak demand at home and as the trade war with the U.S. drags on exports.

Gross domestic product rose 6% in the July-September period from a year ago, the slowest pace since the early 1990s and weaker than the consensus forecast of 6.1%. Factory output rose 5.8% in September, retail sales expanded 7.8%, while investment gained 5.4% in the first nine months of the year. ( Bloomberg ).

Back on the 21st of January I pointed out this.

The M1 money supply statistics show us that growth was a mere 1.5% over 2018 which is a lot lower than the other economic numbers coming out of China and meaning that we can expect more slowing in the early part of 2019. No wonder we have seen some policy easing and I would not be surprised if there was more of it.

The numbers have been slipping away ever since although Bloomberg tries to put a brave face on it. After all you fo not want to upset the Chinese as you might find yourself like the NBA.

Even with the slowdown, year to date growth of 6.2% suggests the government can hit its 6% and 6.5% for 2019.

Actually M1 money supply growth picked up after January to as high as 4.4% but has now fallen back to 3.4%. So the easing has helped and we are not looking at an “end of the world as we know it” scenario in domestic terms but rather caution.

Before I move on let me point out the consequences of the African swine fever outbreak in the pig industry.

Of which, livestock meat price up by 46.9 percent, affecting nearly 2.03 percentage points increase in the CPI (price of pork was up by 69.3 percent, affecting nearly 1.65 percentage points increase in the CPI), poultry meat up by 14.7 percent, affecting nearly 0.18 percentage point increase in the CPI. ( China Bureau of Statistics )

Japan

Overnight the Cabinet Office has informed us that the Bank of Japan is getting ever further away from its inflation target.

  The consumer price index for Japan in September 2019 was 101.9 (2015=100), up 0.2% over the year before seasonal adjustment, and the same level as  the previous month on a seasonally adjusted basis.

They will of course torture the numbers to find any flicker so if you here about furniture and household utensils ( up 2.7%) that will be why.

Next month the issue will be solved by the Consumption Tax rise but of course that takes money out of workers and consumers pockets at a time of economic trouble. What could go wrong?

Comment

As you can see there are plenty of signs of economic trouble in the Pacific region. Many of these countries are used to much higher rates of economic growth than us in the west. According to Bloomberg Indonesia is worried too.

Indonesia‘s central bank has room to cut interest rates further, perhaps as soon as next week, says its deputy governor

Then of course there is the Reserve Bank of Australia which is cutting interest-rates at a rapid rate. In fact Deputy Governor Debelle gave a speech in Sydney updating us on his priority.

The housing market has a pervasive impact on the Australian economy. It is the popular topic of any number of conversations around barbeques and dinner tables. It generates reams of newspaper stories and reality TV shows. You could be forgiven for thinking that the housing market is the Australian economy.[1] That clearly is not the case. But at the same time, developments in the housing market, both the established market and housing construction, have a broader impact than the simple numbers would suggest.