What are the consequences of bond yields rising further?

This week has brought an unusual development for the credit crunch era. Let me illustrate with an example of the reverse and indeed what we have come to regard as the new normal from last week.

AMSTERDAM, Nov 5 (Reuters) – Italy’s five-year bond yield turned negative for the first time on Thursday as uncertainty from the U.S. election supported government bonds in Europe.

Prima facie that seems insane but of course as I will explain later it is more complicated than that. That is for best when we add in this from Marketwatch on Monday.

Investors now pay Greece for the privilege of owning its debt, an incredible turnaround from its securities being the source of global financial instability a decade ago.

Greece’s three-year debt turned negative on Friday, and then the country received more good news after the surprise decision by Moody’s Investors Service on Friday night to upgrade the nation’s debt. The upgrade, from Ba3 from B1 previously, still leaves Greek debt in junk market territory, and three notches away from becoming investment grade.

The yield on Greek 10-year debt TMBMKGR-10Y, 0.834% fell 4 basis points to 0.77%. In 2012, the yield on Greek 10-year debt surpassed 35%.

Amazing in its own way and well done to investors who got their timing right in these markets. Although a large Grazie is due to Mario Draghi who set things in motion.

US Treasury Bonds

However there has been something of a contrary signal from the US bond market. There was a hint of something going on in what is called the Long Bond which is the thirty-year maturity. Some of you may recall at the height of the pandemic panic in financial markets in March the yield here dipped below 1%. This was driven by two factors.The first was a move to a perceived safe haven in times of trouble and US Treasury Bonds are AAA rated as well as being in the world’s reserve currency. Also there would have been some front-running of the expected bond buying or QE from the US Federal Reserve. It did indeed charge in like the US Cavalry with purchases at the peak of US $75 billion per day.

But around 2 weeks ago the mood music was rather different as the debate was then about whether the yield would break above the 1.6% level that market traders felt was significant. As the election results began to come in it did so and now we find it at 1.75%.

If we switch to the benchmark ten-year ( called the Treasury Note) we see a slightly delayed pattern but also a move higher. In fact it gave us a head fake as the initial response to the election was a rally leading to lower yields and we noted it at 0.72%. But there were ch-ch-changes on the way and now we see it is 0.96%. So perhaps on the cusp of what is called a big figure change should it make 1%.

Why does this matter?

The first reason is for the US economy itself and there is a direct line in from mortgage rates.

Over the course of the past few days, 10yr yields are up roughly 0.2%.  This time around, the mortgage market hasn’t been able to avoid taking its lumps with the average lender now quoting 30yr fixed rates that are 0.125% higher compared to last Thursday.    ( Mortgage Daily News)

The housing market has been juiced by ever lower and indeed record low mortgage rates up until now. The change will feed into other personal and corporate borrowing as well.

Next comes its role as the world’s biggest bond market with some US $21.1 billion and of course rising at play here. I will come back to the domestic issues but there is a worldwide role here.For example back in my days in the UK Gilt ( bond) market the beginning of the day was checking what the US market had done overnight before pricing in any UK changes. That theme will be in play around the world and in fact on spite of the Italian and Greek moves above we have seen it.

For the US there is the domestic issue of debt costs. These have been a pack of dogs that have not barked but with the increases in the size of the bond market and hence higher levels of borrowing and refinancing smaller moves now matter. We know that President Elect Biden wants to spend more and looked at this on the 5th of this month although there remains doubt over how much of it he will be able to get through what looks likely to be a Republican controlled Senate. Even before this here are the projections of the Congressional Budget Office.

Debt. As a result of those deficits, federal debt held by the public is projected to rise sharply, to 98 percent of GDP in 2020, compared with 79 percent at the end of 2019 and 35 percent in 2007, before the start of the previous recession. It would exceed 100 percent in 2021 and increase to 107 percent in 2023, the highest in the nation’s history.

Best I think to take that as a broad sweep as there are a lot of moving parts in the equations used.

Yield Curve Control

This is, as you can see, not going so well! We have looked at the Japanese experience as recently as Monday and in the US it would be a case of recycling a wartime policy.

In early 1942, shortly after the United States declared war, the Fed effectively abdicated its responsibility for monetary policy despite its concern about inflation and focused instead on helping the Treasury finance the conflict. After a series of negotiations with the Treasury, the Fed agreed to peg the Treasury-bill yield at 0.375 percent, to cap the critical long-term government bond yield at 2.5 percent, and to limit all other government securities’ yields in a consistent manner.  ( Cleveland Fed)

The Long Bond yield is still quite some distance from the 2.5% of back then but as I have already explained the situation is I think more exposed now.

Oh and there was a concerning consequence to this.

The Treasury, however, did not wish to relinquish its control over Fed monetary policy and only acquiesced to small increases in short-term interest rates starting in July 1947, after inflation had been hovering around 18 percent for a year. The Treasury believed that it could not possibly finance its unprecedented levels of public debt at reasonable interest rates without the Fed’s continued participation in the government-securities market; in its view, only unrealistically high interest rates could coax enough private-sector savings to finance the debt.

Comment

Let me now switch to what we might expect if we had free markets. The extra borrowing we have looked at would be pushing yields higher. Another influence would be the fact the real ( after inflation) bond yields are heavily negative unless you think US inflation will be less than 1% per year for the next ten years. Even then it is not much of a return, especially compared to the 5% in one day some equity markets have just provided. The reality is that bond markets provide the prospect of capital gains rather than interest right now.

Also the modern era provides something very different from free markets as the US Federal Reserve will be thinking at what point will it intervene? Or to be more precise at what point will it do so on a larger scale as it is already buying some US $80 billion per month of US treasury bonds. It was not so long ago that such amounts were considered to be a lot. The path to Yield Curve Control may be via bond yield rises now followed by its response. So the real question is what level will they think is too much? This quickly becomes an estimate of what they think the US government can afford? As they have become an agent of fiscal policy again.

 

The Bank of England has pumped up the housing market again

Overnight there has been quite a shift in economic sentiment. To some extent I am referring to the falls in equity markets although the real issue is the new lockdown in France and increased restrictions in Germany. As we have been noting they were obviously on their way and the Euro area now looks set to see its economy contract again this quarter. It will be interesting to see how and if the ECB responds to this in today’s meeting and these feeds also into the Bank of England. The UK has tightened restrictions especially in Northern Ireland and Wales as we now wonder what more the central banks can do in response to this?

Still even in this economic storm there is something to make a central banker smile.

LONDON (Reuters) – Lloyds Banking Group LLOY.L posted forecast-beating third quarter profit on Thursday, lowering its provisions for expected bad loans due to the pandemic and cashing in on a boom in demand for mortgages.

Britain’s biggest domestic lender reported pre-tax profits of 1 billion pounds for the July-September period, compared to the 588 million pounds average of analysts’ forecasts.

Few things cheer a central banker more than an improvement in prospects for The Precious! But we can see that there is also for them a cherry on top of the icing.

The bank booked new mortgage lending of 3.5 billion pounds over the quarter, after receiving the biggest surge in quarterly applications since 2008.

That links into the theme of monetary easing which of course is claimed to help businesses but if you believe the official protestations somehow inexplicably ends up in the housing market every time. So let us look at the latest monetary data which has just been released. Oh and one point before I move on, what use are analysts who keep getting things so wrong?

Mortgages

Whoever was responsible for the Bank of England morning meeting today must have run there with a smile on their face and gone through the whole release word by word.

The mortgage market strengthened a little further in September. On net, households borrowed an additional £4.8 billion secured on their homes, following borrowing of £3.0 billion in August. This pickup in borrowing follows high levels of mortgage approvals for house purchase seen over recent months. Mortgage borrowing troughed at £0.2 billion in April, but has since recovered reaching levels slightly higher than the average of £4.0 billion in the six months to February 2020. The increase on the month reflected higher gross borrowing of £20.5 billion, although this remains below the February level of £23.4 billion.

From their perspective they will see this as a direct response to the interest-rate cuts and QE they have undertaken as net mortgage borrowing has gone from £0.2 billion in April to £4.8 billion. Something they can achieve.

The outlook,from their perspective, looks bright as well.

The number of mortgage approvals for house purchase continued increasing sharply in September, to 91,500 from 85,500 in August (Chart 1). This was the highest number of approvals since September 2007, and is 24% higher than approvals in February 2020. Approvals in September were around 10 times higher than the trough of 9,300 approvals in May.

At this point we have what in central banking terms is quite an apparent triumph as they have lit the blue touch paper for the housing market. It has not only been them as there have also been Stamp Duty reductions but we see that there is an area of the economy that monetary policy can affect.

As to what people are paying? Here are the numbers.

The ‘effective’ interest rates – the actual interest rates paid – on newly drawn, and the outstanding stock of, mortgages were little changed in September. New mortgage rates were 1.74%, an increase of 2 basis points on the month, while the interest rate on the stock of mortgage loans fell 1 basis point to 2.13% in September.

Money Supply

Curiously the Money and Credit release does not tell us the money supply numbers these days although we do get this.

Overall, private sector companies and households increased their holdings of money in September. Sterling money (known as M4ex) increased by £10.8 billion in September; a significant rise from August which saw withdrawals of £1.0 billion (Chart 5). This is a continuation of the trend of strong deposit flows seen between March and July, albeit at a much weaker pace in comparison to the £40.5 billion monthly average seen during that period.

In essence this is part of the higher savings we have observed where people have furlough payments to keep incomes going but opportunities to spend them have been cut.

I have looked them up and annual M4 (broad money) growth was 11.6% in September. So we are seeing a push of the order of 12% which is more than in the Euro area.

Consumer Credit

Here the going has got a lot tougher and the monetary push seems to be fading already.

Household’s consumer credit weakened in September with net repayments of £0.6 billion, following some additional net borrowing in July (£1.1 billion) and August (£0.3 billion).

Actually the numbers have established something of an even declining trend since July. This means that the detail looks really rather grim.

Although the repayment in September was small in comparison to the £3.9 billion monthly average seen between March and June, this contrasts with an average of £1.1 billion of additional borrowing per month in the 18 months to February 2020. The weakness in consumer credit net flows pushed the annual growth rate down further in September to -4.6%, a new series low since it began in 1994.

In fact it is essentially repayment of credit card debt.

The net repayment of consumer credit was driven by a net repayment on credit cards of £0.6 billion

So it has an annual growth rate of -11.3% now. That is probably due to the price of it which is something of a binary situation.For those unaware there have been quite a few 0% offers in the UK for some time now but this is also true for others.

The cost of credit card borrowing was also broadly unchanged at 17.92% in September.

Although blaming the interest-rate for credit card borrowing does have the problem that overdraft interest-rates have been on quite a tear.

The effective rates – the actual interest rate paid – on interest-charging overdrafts continued to rise in September, by 3.52 percentage points to 22.52%. This is the highest since the series began in 2016, and compares to a rate of 10.32% in March 2020 before new rules on overdraft pricing came into effect.

Perhaps those that can have switched to the much cheaper personal loans.

Rates on new personal loans to individuals were little changed in September, at 4.78%, compared to an interest rate of around 7% in early 2020.

As you can see Bank of England policy has been effective in reducing the price of those.

Comment

The present situation gives us an insight into the limits of monetary policy and as to whether we are “maxxed out”. We see that the Bank of England interest-rate cuts, QE bond purchases (another £4.4 billion this week) and credit easing can influence the housing market and personal loans. However we have also noted the way that more risky borrowers are now wondering where all the interest-rate cuts went? For example a 2 year fixed rate with a 5% deposit was 2.74% in July as the Bank of England pushed rates lower but was 3.95% in September, or a fair bit higher than before the easing ( it was typically around 3%).

So we see that monetary policy is colliding with these times even before we get out into the real economy and a reason for this can be see on this morning’s release from Lloyds Bank. Some £62.7 billion of mortgages went into payment holidays of which £9.1 billion have been further extended and £2.2 billion have missed payments. No doubt the banks fear more of this and this is why they are tightening credit for riskier borrowers which operates in the opposite direction to Bank of England policy.

So the easing gets muted and we are left mostly with the easing of credit for the government as the instrument of policy right  now.

 

 

 

 

Australia sees a GDP plunge whilst it prepares for a trade war

This morning has brought us much more up to date on the state of economic play in a land down under. Even what we have come to call the South China Territories could not keep up its record of economic expansion this year.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) fell a historic 7.0% this quarter, as the COVID-19 pandemic and the corresponding movement restrictions continued to impact economic activity. The June quarter release records the first annual estimate of GDP for 2019/20, which fell 0.2%,ending Australia’s longest streak of continuous growth, 28 years. ( Australia Statistics)

We find ourselves in curious times as we note two things. Firstly that this is a depression which will only end when output regains the lost ground. Also that a quarterly fall of 7% is a relatively good performance which does question some of the things we keep being told as locked down Australia has done better than the more laissez faire Sweden. Curiously the media seem to be concentrating on this being a recession ( GDP fell by 0.3% in the first quarter) which seems to be quite an under playing of it.

The Detail

We see a familiar pattern of a sharp decline in private demand.

Private demand detracted 7.9 percentage points from GDP, with household final consumption expenditure driving the fall. Public demand partly offset the fall, contributing 0.6 percentage points, as government increased spending in response to COVID-19.

Indeed so much of what has happened was a consumption plunge.

Household final consumption expenditure fell a record 12.1%, detracting 6.7 percentage points from GDP. Household expenditure fell 2.6% for the 2019/20 financial year, the first annual fall in recorded history.

The next bit is intriguing as we have seen elsewhere rises in purchases of food as a type of stockpiling.

Spending on services fell 17.6% reflecting temporary shutdown of businesses and movement restrictions. Spending on goods fell 2.8% driven by record falls in operation of vehicles and clothing and footwear, while spending on food recorded the biggest decline since June 1983.

There was something of a space oddity in the trade data however. One might reasonably think that as China was something of an epicentre for the pandemic then supplying it with resources was not going to be a winner. But net trade provided a boost.

The record fall in imports (-12.9%) was greater than the fall in exports (-6.7%). Imports of goods fell 2.4%, reflecting reduced imports of consumption and capital goods. Imports of services fell 50.5% with travel services falling 98.7% in response to travel bans. Exports of goods fell 3.5%, driven by falls in non-rural and rural goods due to a fall in global demand. Exports of services fell 18.4%, reflecting the travel bans.

Whilst no-one will be surprised at the travel data we know that national accounts struggle to measure services trade with any degree of accuracy. It seems more than a little curious that in a pandemic physical trade was barely affected whereas services and especially imports of services were hammered. If we put the number below back we get close to what Sweden did.

Net exports contributed 1.0 percentage point to GDP

There was another curiosity in the shop.

Health care and social assistance value added experienced its greatest fall since September 1997, down 7.9% in June quarter. The fall was driven by a decline in both private and public health services with reduced demand for medical aids, hospital services and allied health services as face to face visits to practitioners were limited.

The last bit is really rather Orwellian as a reduction in supply is reported as a reduction in demand! This issue of course goes way beyond Australia as whilst some health care areas were flat out others pretty much shut down. It looks quite a mess frankly.

Savings and Wages

There are two separate trends here as some did well.

The household saving to income ratio rose to 19.8%, the highest rate since June 1974. This was driven by the record fall in consumption. Gross disposable income rose 2.2%, driven by an historic 41.6% increase in social assistance benefits, due to both an increase in the number of recipients and additional COVID-19 support payments.

But the wages numbers suggest the well-off may have done okay but the poorest did not. The emphasis is mine.

Compensation of employees fell a record 2.5% this quarter. Average compensation per employee rose an 3.1% this quarter reflecting a compositional shift in the work force with reduced employment in part-time and lower paid jobs.

Reserve Bank of Australia

It seems that the RBA has its eyes on the housing market.

Investment in new and used dwellings fell 7.3% in the quarter due to weakened demand and COVID-19 restrictions, the largest fall since December 2000. ( Australia Statistics)

This is because yesterday it announced new moves to pump it up as it copies the Bank of England.

Under the expanded Term Funding Facility, authorised deposit-taking institutions (ADIs) will have access to additional funding, equivalent to 2 per cent of their outstanding credit, at a fixed rate of 25 basis points for three years. ADIs will be able to draw on this extra funding up until the end of June 2021………To date, ADIs have drawn $52 billion under the Term Funding Facility and further drawings are expected over coming weeks. Today’s change brings the total amount available under this facility to around $200 billion.

The first point is that “banks” are so unpopular now that they have apparently had their name changed to “authorised deposit-taking institutions ” or ADIs. That is curious when we are discussing lending rather than depositing. I see the RBA looking at its impact like this.

There is a very high level of liquidity in the Australian financial system and borrowing rates are at historical lows.

Let us go straight to the heat of the action as the RBA is repeating a policy designed to get mortgage interest-rates lower. We see why it has announced an expansion as we note mortgage rates. Variable rates for new borrowers were 3.5% in July last year and were 2.92% this. So we have two contexts of which the first is that they have not moved much when we consider the Cash Rate was also cut to 0.25% and we are seeing QE (of which more later). Also they are relatively high if we look internationally.

The picture looks better for the RBA if we look at fixed-rate mortgages. If we look at ones for up to three-years we see that it fell over the year to June from 3.43% to 2.3% making fixed-rates look attractive to say the least. Apologies for the way they have one set of numbers for the year to July and another to June but I think we get the picture.

There is a chart comparing these rates with swap rates so the cost of the banks intermediation is in fact 2% of the 2.3%.

Comment

There are some particularly Australian features here. Let me address the issue of a boost from trade via this I spotted from @chigrl

India, Australia and Japan on Tuesday agreed to launch an initiative to ensure the resilience of supply chains in the Indo-Pacific, with the move coming against the backdrop of tensions created by China’s aggressive actions across the region.

The creation of the “Supply Chain Resilience Initiative” was mooted by Japan amid the Covid-19 crisis, which has played havoc with supply and manufacturing chains,  ( Hindustan Times)

I doubt that will be welcomed by Australia’s largest customer and that has clear trade implications.

Next let me return to the RBA. As I am a polite man I will call this quite a cheek.

 Government bond markets are functioning normally, alongside a significant increase in issuance.

In fact they are so normal they had to buy a barrel load…….Oh hang on.

Over the past month, the Bank bought a further $10 billion of Australian Government Securities (AGS) in support of its 3-year yield target of 25 basis points. Since March, the Bank has bought a total of $61 billion of government securities. Further purchases will be undertaken as necessary.

Number Crunching

The Governor of the Bank of England Andrew Bailey will be interviewed by the Treasury Select Committee and I have put in a question request.

With Apple now worth more than the UK FTSE 100 will someone please ask the Governor why he is buying Apple Corporate Bonds?

Where next for US house prices?

Yesterday brought us up to date in the state of play in the US housing market. So without further ado let us take a look.

The S&P CoreLogic Case-Shiller U.S. National Home Price NSA Index, covering all nine U.S. census divisions, reported a 3.2% annual gain in September, up from 3.1% in the previous month. The 10-City Composite annual increase came in at 1.5%, no change from the previous month. The 20-City Composite posted a 2.1% year-over-year gain, up from 2.0% in the previous month.

The first impression is that by the standards we have got used to that is a low number providing us with another context for the interest-rate cuts we have seen in 2019 from the US Federal Reserve. Of course it is not only the Fed that likes higher asset prices.

“DOW, NASDAQ, S&P 500 CLOSE AT RECORD HIGHS”

Another new Stock Market Record. Enjoy!

Those are 2 separate tweets from Monday from President Trump who not only loves a stock market rally but enjoys claiming it is all down to him. I do not recall him specifically noting house prices but it seems in the same asset price pumping spirit to me.

In my opinion the crucial part of the analysis provided by S&P comes right at the beginning.

After a long period of decelerating price increases, it’s notable that in September both the national and
20-city composite indices rose at a higher rate than in August, while the 10-city index’s September rise
matched its August performance. It is, of course, too soon to say whether this month marks an end to
the deceleration or is merely a pause in the longer-term trend.

If we look at the situation we see that things are very different from the 10% per annum rate reached in 2014 and indeed the 7% per annum seen in the early part of last year.That will concern the Fed which went to an extreme amount of effort to get house prices rising again. From a peak of 184.62 in July of 2006 the national index fell to 134.62 in February of 2012 and has now rallied to 212.2 or 58% up from the low and 15% up from the previous peak.

As ever there are regional differences.

Phoenix, Charlotte and Tampa reported the highest year-over-year gains among the 20 cities. In
September, Phoenix led the way with a 6.0% year-over-year price increase, followed by Charlotte with
a 4.6% increase and Tampa with a 4.5% increase. Ten of the 20 cities reported greater price increases
in the year ending September 2019 versus the year ending August 2019…….. Of the 20 cities in the composite, only one (San Francisco) saw a year-over-year price
decline in September

Mortgage Rates

If we look for an influence here we see a contributor to the end of the 7% per annum house price rise in 2018 as they rose back then. But since then things have been rather different as those who have followed my updates on the US bond market will be expecting. Indeed Mortgage News Daily put it like this.

2019 has been the best year for mortgage rates since 2011.  Big, long-lasting improvements such as this one are increasingly susceptible to bounces/corrections……Fed policy and the US/China trade war have been key players.

But we see that so far a move that began in bond markets around last November has yet to have a major influence on house prices. If you wish to know what US house buyers are paying for a mortgage here is the state of play.

Today’s Most Prevalent Rates For Top Tier Scenarios

  • 30YR FIXED -3.75%
  • FHA/VA – 3.375%
  • 15 YEAR FIXED – 3.375%
  • 5 YEAR ARMS –  3.25-3.75% depending on the lender

More recently bonds seem to be rallying again so we may see another dip in mortgage rates but we will have to see and with Thanksgiving Day on the horizon things may be well be quiet for the rest of this week.

The economy

This has been less helpful for house prices.There may be a minor revision later but as we stand the third quarter did this.

Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased 1.9 percent in the third quarter of 2019, according to the “advance” estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the second quarter, real GDP increased 2.0 percent. ( US BEA ).

Each quarter in 2019 has seen lower growth and that trend seems set to continue.

The New York Fed Staff Nowcast stands at 0.7% for 2019:Q4.

News from this week’s data releases increased the nowcast for 2019:Q4 by 0.3 percentage point.

Positive surprises from housing data drove most of the increase.

Something of a mixture there as the number rallied due to housing data from building permits and housing starts.Mind you more supply into the same demand could push future prices lower! But returning to the wider economy back in late September the NY Fed was expecting economic growth in line with the previous 5 months of around 2% in annualised terms.But now even with a rally it is a mere 0.7%.

Employment and Wages

The situation here has continued to improve.

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 128,000 in October, and the unemployment rate was little
changed at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Notable job gains occurred in
food services and drinking places, social assistance, and financial activities……..In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 6 cents to $28.18. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 3.0 percent.

But the real issue here is the last number. Yes the US has wage gains and they are real wage gains with CPI being as shown below in October.

Over the last 12 months, the all items index increased 1.8 percent before seasonal adjustment.

So this should be helping although it is a slow burner at just over 1% per annum and of course we are reminded that according to the Ivory Towers the employment situation should mean that wage growth is a fair bit higher and certainly over 4% per annum.

Moving back to looking at house prices then wage growth is pretty much the same so houses are not getting more affordable on this criteria.

Comment

As we review the situation it is hard not to laugh at this from Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell on Monday.

While events of the year have not much changed the outlook,

You can take this one of two ways.Firstly his interest-rate cuts are not especially relevant or you can wonder why he did them? Looking at the trend for GDP growth does few favours to his statement nor for this bit.

Fortunately, the outlook for further progress is good

Indeed he seemed to keep contradicting himself.

 The preview indicated that job gains over that period were about half a million lower than previously reported. On a monthly basis, job gains were likely about 170,000 per month, rather than 210,000.

But I do note that house prices did get an implicit reference.

But the wealth of middle-income families—savings, home equity, and other assets—has only recently surpassed levels seen before the Great Recession, and the wealth of people with lower incomes, while growing, has yet to fully recover.

As to other signals we get told pretty much every day that the trade war is fixed so there is not a little fatigue and ennui on this subject. Looking at the money supply then it should be supportive but the most recent number for narrow money M1 at 6.8% shows a bit of fading too.

So whilst we may see a boost for the economy from around the spring of next year we seem set for more of the same for house prices.Unless of course the US Federal Reserve has to act again which with the ongoing Repo numbers is a possibility. The background is this though which brings me back to why central bankers are so keen on keeping on keeping house prices out of consumer inflation measures.Can you guess which of the lines below goes into the official CPI?

https://www.bourbonfm.com/blog/house-price-index-vs-owners-equivalent-rent-residences-1990

Whilst it is not sadly up to date it does establish a principle….

 

 

What is happening with US house prices and its economy?

Sometimes it helps to look back so let us dip into Yahoo Finance from the 17th of December last year.

Home price growth has slowed for six consecutive months since April, according to the S&P CoreLogic Case-Shiller national home price index. And for the first time in a year, annual price growth fell below 6%, dropping to 5.7% and 5.5%, in August and September, respectively. October home price results will be released later this month.

So we see what has in many places become a familiar pattern as housing markets lose some of their growth. There was and indeed is a consequence of this.

“A couple of years of home prices running twice the rate of home income growth leads to affordability challenges,” said Mortgage Bankers Association Chief Economist Mike Fratantoni. “If you’re a buyer in 2019, you won’t see home price running away from you at the same speed in 2018.”

I think he means wages when he says “home income growth” but he is making a point which we have seen in many places where house price growth has soared and decoupled from wage growth. This has been oil by the way that central banks slashed official interest-rates which reduced mortgage-rates and then also indulged in large-scale bond buying which in the US included Mortgage-Backed Securities to further reduce mortgage-rates. This meant that affordability improved as long as you were willing to look away from higher debt burdens and the implication that should interest-rates rise the song “the heat is on” would start playing very quickly.

Or if you wish to consider that in chart form Yahoo Finance helped us out.

That is a chart to gladden a central bankers heart as it shows that the policy measures enacted turned house prices around and led to strong growth in them. The double-digit growth of late 2013 and early 2014 will have then scrambling up into their Ivory Towers to calculate the wealth effects. But the problem is that compared to wage growth they moved away at 8% per annum back then and the minimum since has been 2% per annum. That means that a supposed solution to house prices being too high and contributing to an economic crash has been to make them higher again especially relative to wages.

What about house price growth now?

Yesterday provided us with an update.

CoreLogic® (NYSE: CLGX), a leading global property information, analytics and data-enabled solutions provider, today released the CoreLogic Home Price Index (HPI) and HPI Forecast for February 2019, which shows home prices rose both year over year and month over month. Home prices increased nationally by 4 percent year over year from February 2018. On a month-over-month basis, prices increased by 0.7 percent in February 2019.

So there has been a slowing in the rate of growth which is reflected here.

“During the first two months of the year, home-price growth continued to decelerate,” said Dr. Frank Nothaft, chief economist for CoreLogic. “This is the opposite of what we saw the last two years when price growth accelerated early.

Looking ahead they do however expect something of a pick-up.

“With the Federal Reserve’s announcement to keep short-term interest rates where they are for the rest of the year, we expect mortgage rates to remain low and be a boost for the spring buying season. A strong buying season could lead to a pickup in home-price growth later this year.”

That gives us another perspective on the change of policy from the US Federal Reserve. So far its U-Turn has mostly been locked at through the prism of equity prices partly due to the way that President Trump focuses on them. But another way of looking at it is in response to slower house price growth which was being influenced by higher mortgage rates as the Federal Reserve raised interest-rates and reduced its bond holdings. This saw the 30-year mortgage-rate rise from just under 4% to a bit over 4.9% in November, no doubt providing its own brake on proceedings.

What about now?

If we look at monetary policy we see that perhaps something of a Powell Put Option is in place as at the end of last week the 30-year mortgage rate was 4.06%. Now bond yields have picked up this week so lets round it back up to say 4.15%. Even so that is quite a drop from the peak last year.

There is also some real wage growth according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Real average hourly earnings for all employees increased 1.9 percent, seasonally adjusted, from February 2018 to February 2019. The change in real average hourly earnings, combined with a 0.3-percent decrease in the average workweek, resulted in a 1.6-percent increase in real average weekly earnings over this 12-month period.

In terms of hourly earnings the situation has been improving since last summer whereas the weekly figures were made more complex by the drop in hours worked meaning we particularly await Friday’s update for them.

Moving to the economy then recent figures have been a little more upbeat than when we looked at the US back on the 22nd of February but not by much.

The New York Fed Staff Nowcast stands at 1.3% for 2019:Q1 and 1.6% for 2019:Q2..News from this week’s data releases left the nowcast for 2019:Q1 unchanged and decreased the nowcast for 2019:Q2 by 0.1 percentage point.

Of the main data so far this week we did not learn an enormous amount from the retail sales numbers from the Census Bureau.

Advance estimates of U.S. retail and food services sales for February 2019, adjusted for seasonal variation
and holiday and trading-day differences, but not for price changes, were $506.0 billion, a decrease of 0.2
percent (±0.5 percent)* from the previous month, but 2.2 percent (±0.7 percent) above February 2018.

As these are effectively turnover rather than real growth figures a monthly fall is especially troubling but January had been revised higher.

Comment

We are observing concurrent contradictory waves at the moment. The effect from 2018 was of a slowing economy combined with monetary tightening in terms of higher mortgage-rates. More recently after the policy shift we have seen mortgage-rates fall pretty sharply and since last summer a pick-up in wage growth. So we can expect some growth and maybe we might even see a phase where wage growth exceeds house price growth. But it would appear that the US Federal Reserve has shifted policy to keep asset (house and equity) prices as high as it can so it may move again,

As to the overall picture this from Corelogic troubles me.

According to the CoreLogic Market Condition Indicators (MCI), an analysis of housing values in the country’s 100 largest metropolitan areas based on housing stock, 35 percent of metropolitan areas have an overvalued housing market as of February 2019. The MCI analysis categorizes home prices in individual markets as undervalued, at value or overvalued, by comparing home prices to their long-run, sustainable levels, which are supported by local market fundamentals (such as disposable income).

Only 35% overvalued? Look again at the gap between house price rises and wage rises in the Yahoo chart above. So if we look backwards very few places must have been overvalued just before the crash. Also times are hard for younger people.

Frank Martell, president and CEO of CoreLogic. “Our research tells us that about 74 percent of millennials, the single largest cohort of homebuyers, now report having to cut back on other categories of spending to afford their housing costs.”

I am not sure that goes with the previous research. Also if the stereotype has any validity times for millennials in the US are grim or should that be toast?

The price for Hass avocados from Michoacán, Mexico’s main avocado producing region, increased 34 percent on Tuesday amid President Trump’s calls to shut down the U.S.-Mexico border ( The Hill).

Let me end with a reminder from CoreLogic that averages do not tell us the full story.

Annual change by state ranged from a 10.2 percent high in Idaho to a -1.7 percent low in North Dakota

 

 

 

 

Current bond yields imply a depressing view of the world economy

Let me welcome you all to 2019 as we advance on another new year. I hope that it will be a good one for all of you. As I look at financial markets there has been a development which in isolation is good news. This is that the US ten-year Treasury Bond yield is now 2.67%. That is good news for US taxpayers as their government can borrow more cheaply in spite of the current shut down of part of it and good news for US mortgage borrowers as it feed into fixed-rate borrowing costs. It compares to this situation which I looked at back on the 6th of December.

Now let us look at the US ten-year yield which is 2.9% as I type this and we see that in basic terms it is predicting a couple more 0.25% interest-rate rises.

I will look at why in a moment but let us now shift to the Wall Street Journal for another comparison.

The yield closed Monday at 2.68%, up from the 2.41% where it ended 2017.

The pattern is described by the WSJ below.

The yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury note—which moves inversely to price and helps set borrowing costs for consumers and businesses around the world—climbed higher at the start of 2018 as stocks rose and the dollar weakened. Investors were content to look past geopolitical tensions, and bonds’ fixed rates, given expectations for a soaring profits and economic growth……..Now, the yield has retreated from multiyear highs hit in November, falling below 3%

The pattern was that the ten-year Treasury Bond rose to 3.26% and you may recall that there were forecasts of it going above 4% at that time. To be fair “bond king” ( CNBC) Jeffrey Gundlach was looking at the thirty-year yield but that has just dipped below 3% today in a different big figure move. Back in July the St. Louis Federal Reserve looked at why it thought US bond yields were rising.

The expected long-term inflation rate and the expected long-term real growth rate of the economy are the most important factors that influence long-term yields. If bond buyers expect higher inflation or higher real growth, they will expect higher interest rates in the future and thus will demand a higher yield on the bonds they buy today.

Central bankers love this sort of thing but I wish you the best of luck in figuring either out in reality! Especially after the past credit crunch driven decade. We can say that the US economy has performed better than its peers so there is a little light in the fog but the next bit to my mind is more important than we are told.

Bond yields also depend on the uncertainty about these factors, so the volatility of expected inflation and growth also influence long-bond yields, but these variables are harder to measure and have smaller effects.

Yes they are harder to measure but we should not use that as an excuse to say they have smaller effects just because that is all we can find. The period between when that was written in July and now shows us how powerful this can be if we look at the ch-ch-changes. Also this bit has not worn well.

The growth in expected future fiscal deficits is likely to have contributed to the rise in relative yields.

That was true but is even more true now an yet yields have fallen as I pointed out earlier. Financial markets pick and choose which factors are the most important at the time and I note the St.Louis Fed missed out the main driver of bond yields in the modern era which is the impact of the policy of the Federal Reserve itself.

The international picture

I do agree with the St.Louis Fed on this point.

The international yields usually, but not always, move together. (  the U.K., Canada, Germany, Japan, Switzerland)

The next bit is awkward for them to analyse as we are back to the impact of central banking policies again. So Germany for instance has seen its bond yields continue to be driven lower by purchases made by the European Central Bank or ECB which have just stopped. But we see that the ten-year German bund yields a mere 0.18% as I type this. Again in isolation that is a benefit for German taxpayers and borrowers but there is also a problem which is highlighted by this from the Markit PMI from this morning.

The headline IHS Markit/BME Germany Manufacturing
PMI – a single-figure snapshot of the performance of the
manufacturing economy – slipped to 51.5 in December,
down from 51.8 in November and its lowest reading since
March 2016. It marked the eleventh time that the index had
fallen in 2018, down from a record high in December 2017.

The German economy has hit a weak phase and this includes the 0.2% fall in GDP in the third quarter of 2018. But the problem is that long-term it has benefited from a lower currency via replacing the Deutschmark with the Euro and in more recent times it has benefited from low and then negative interest-rates. What else is there? Also regular readers who have followed my regular updates on the weakening money supply data in the Euro area may have a wry smile at this.

but the extent of the slowdown has been somewhat of a surprise.

Central banking policy

This has changed although as ever the rhetoric is in the wrong direction. From Reuters.

The most prominent hawk on the European Central Bank’s board still expects an interest rate hike in 2019 but concedes that this will depend on inflation data in the first half of the year………Sabine Lautenschlaeger, a German who has long called for the ECB to tighten its ultra-loose policy, still hopes for a move next year if data allows.

Actually as we have looked at above the data would be considered grounds for considering an interest-rate cut if the ECB deposit rate was not already -0.4%. In my opinion we cannot completely rule out a rise because just like we saw in Sweden before Christmas there could be an attempt to get back to 0% before things get any worse. But it would be an example of what in itself being a good idea being done with bad timing which means it should not happen.

If we move back to the US the simple fact is that the interest-rate rise of a couple of weeks ago may be the last one. Also due to technical reasons ( the amount of Quantitative Tightening or QT depends on maturing bonds) the bond sales will slow in 2019 anyway, but in a slow down there will be pressure for QE4 to head down the slipway.

Comment

What started as good news leads to a more uncomfortable picture as we note that the real shift has been in economic data. This as we looked at last year got worse as we saw a slow down in monetary data lead to weaker economies around the world. This morning has seen another sign of this. From CNBC.

The moves in pre-market trade come after a private sector survey showed manufacturing activity in the world’s second-largest economy contracted for the first time in 19 months. China’s Markit Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) for December dipped to 49.7 from 50.2 in November.

This added to the news that auto sales had fallen by 16% in November in China. We have also seen this from Chris Williamson on the Markit PMI data.

manufacturing indicates that last 3 months of 2018 saw the worst factory output growth since the Q2 2013, with firms having to eat into backorders to sustain production levels. Some temporary factors evident but trend looks worryingly weak

Stock markets have led this and I note that they are lower today although we need to note the extraordinary ups and downs of the holiday period. Also there is the role of the price of crude oil which also was volatile but overall has been falling. It supports bond prices and reduces bond yields but affecting inflation projections and also signalling a potentially weaker economy.

So there you have it as we find that what looks like good news is a signal for bad economic trends. It does show markets responding in the way that they should. The problem is their starting point and for that all eyes turn to the central banks who have driven them there. Get ready for the claims that “it could not possibly have been expected” and “Surprise!Surprise!” We already start with trillions of bonds with a negative yield so what can be gained?

What is happening to house prices and rents in Ireland?

Yesterday brought us up to date with house price changes in the Euro area at least for the start of 2018. From Eurostat.

House prices, as measured by the House Price Index, rose by 4.5% in the euro area and by 4.7% in the EU in the
first quarter of 2018 compared with the same quarter of the previous year…….Compared with the fourth quarter of 2017, house prices rose by 0.6% in the euro area and by 0.7% in the EU in the first quarter of 2018.

As you might expect there are some swings from country to country but before we get there we see some interpretation of history.

House prices in the EU up 11 % since 2010

Actually they fell for a while due to the Euro area crisis and then responded to the “Whatever It Takes” measures.

Prices started growing again in 2014.

A particular disappointment to Mario Draghi must be that his home country Italy has ignored all his efforts to pump up house prices as they fell there by 0.4% over the last year and are down 15% since 2010. Meanwhile my attention was drawn to Ireland with its 12.3% rise in the latest year.

This is because the boom and then bust in Irish house prices took much of the banking system with it.  This meant via the usual privatisation of profits but socialisation of losses with respect to the banking system the Irish taxpayer found themselves in this situation described by its national debt agency NTMA.

That may bring Ireland’s high stock of debt – which at €213bn is more than four times its 2007 level – into sharp focus. Whilst our debt ratios are improving, our total nominal debt is still rising as we continue to borrow to pay interest.

This means that whilst the interest-rate or yield on Ireland’s bonds has fallen a lot mostly due to the bond buying or QE of the ECB (European Central Bank) there is a tidy bill to pay each year.

Almost irrespective of the external interest rate environment, we still expect Ireland’s annual interest bill to fall towards €5bn in the near term, from €6.1bn in 2017 and a peak of €7.5bn in 2014.

Ireland now only has an interest-rate of 0.81% on its ten-year benchmark bond so a fair bit lower than the UK which represents quite a change when we borrowed money to lend to theme to help them out.

House prices

The Irish statistics office or CSO brings us more up to date.

In the year to April, residential property prices at national level increased by 13.0%. This compares with an increase of 12.6% in the year to March and an increase of 9.5% in the twelve months to April 2017.

As you can see the pace has been picking up although it is no longer being quite so led by Dublin.

In Dublin, residential property prices increased by 12.5% in the year to April. Dublin house prices increased 11.7%. Apartments in Dublin increased 15.9% in the same period.

The reason why I raise the Dublin issue is that it has seen the widest swings as it had the biggest bubble then fell the most and then for a while picked back up more quickly. Or as it is put here.

From the trough in early 2013, prices nationally have increased by 76.0%. Dublin residential property prices have increased 90.1% from their February 2012 low, whilst residential property prices in the Rest of Ireland are 69.9% higher than the trough, which was in May 2013.

That is quite a surge is it not? Whilst the Dublin recovery started earlier nearly all of this fits with the “Whatever It Takes” policies and timing of the ECB, Of course it raises old fears as well although we are not back to where the bubble burst.

Overall, the national index is 21.1% lower than its highest level in 2007. Dublin residential property prices are 23.3% lower than their February 2007 peak, while residential property prices in the Rest of Ireland are 26.1% lower than their May 2007 peak.

Oh and maybe another issue is having an impact.

The Border region showed the least price growth, with house prices increasing 9.3%.

Rents

We can track these down via the consumer inflation numbers and we get a hint here.

Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels rose mainly due to higher rents and an increase in the price of home heating oil and electricity.

Looking into the detail we see that rents have risen by 7.4% over the past year and by 0.5% in May. The larger private-sector market is currently seeing a faster rate of rise but there must have been quite a chunky rise in public-sector rents at some point in the last year as they are up by 10.6% over that period.

Mortgage Interest-Rates

I found these hard to track down as the Central Bank of Ireland changed its reporting system but the Irish Consumer Price Index gives us a guide. It must have been designed in a similar way to the UK RPI as it includes mortgage interest-rates. The index for this was 143 when Mario Draghi was giving his “Whatever It Takes” ( to reduce mortgage rates) speech whereas in May it was 99.1.

Although rather curiously the Irish Independent reports that many have not bothered to switch to lower mortgage-rates.

KBC Bank is due to tell the Oireachtas Finance Committee it has 36,000 residential customers paying variable rates, which are its most expensive home-loan option, when they could get a lower priced deal from a bank.

It comes after it emerged that more than 100,000 homeowners at Bank of Ireland and Permanent TSB are paying up to €3,000 more a year on their mortgages than they need to at the two banks.

Perhaps they do not realise they can get them as I recall Ireland having a situation where many could not switch due to the house price falls.

Comment

There is a fair bit to consider here and let me open by agreeing to some extent with Mario Draghi.

European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi has linked the current spike in Irish property prices to “the search for yield by international investors”.

Mr Draghi said the real estate market in the Republic and several other EU states was “overstretched” and vulnerable to “repricing”. ( Irish Times yesterday).

He cannot bring himself to say falls nor to acknowledge his own role in them being overstretched but he does have time to bring up the fall guy which is of course financial terrorists.

 being fuelled by cross-border financing and non-banks, and that it would be important to investigate whether new macro-prudential instruments should be introduced for non-banks, especially in relation to their commercial real estate exposures.

We can’t have banks losing profitable business can we? Speaking of macro-prudential so the 2015 measures did not work then which is not a surprise here but perhaps a suggestion from the UK might help.

Under such a target the Bank of England should aim to keep nominal house price inflation at (say)
zero per cent for an initial period – perhaps five years – to reset expectations, ( IPPR)

So the organisation which has pumped them up has the job of controlling them? Whilst the central planners would love this sadly it would not work and I say that as someone who thinks we badly need lower house prices and switching back to Ireland because of this sort of thing. From the Irish Examiner.

The scramble to find a home in the crisis-hit rental sector has led to people queuing to view a €900-a-month one-bedroom apartment on Cork’s Tuckey Street……..

Piet said last week they were the first people in a 50-person queue on MacCurtain Street and were refused the apartment because they did not have a reference letter with them.

Piet said the rental sector is a lot more expensive than it was a few years ago.

The average rental property in Cork has soared to above €1,210 a month — up almost 10% on last year.

“We pushed the boat out to €900 a month just to get somewhere nice. That is the very end of our budget,” said Piet.

Or to put it another way with both house prices and rents soaring the rentiers are quids ( Euros) in.