It has been too long since we took a look at the economic state of play in Portugal, which is a delightful country. For newer readers Portugal was in the bad boys/girls club at the time of the Euro area crisis symbolised by the way that its national debt to economic output ratio ( GDP) went over the 120% level set as a signal by the Euro area. That was a particular irony as that level was set to avoid embarrassing Portugal and indeed Italy. But after that phase Portugal went into favoured child status as its economy improved and it followed Euro area instructions.
But now things are really rather different as the Euro area boom of 2017/18 was in modern language like over before the Covid-19 pandemic arrived. There were even issues for the successful motor sector.
The auto sector – including car and component production – is a core sector of the Portuguese economy. It represents 4% of total GDP, is represented in 29 000 companies, is responsible for 124 000 direct jobs and a business volume of 23, 7 thousand millions of euros and 21,6 % of the total fiscal revenues in Portugal. The automobile sector is responsible for 11% of total exportations. Portuguese technical skills in this field, the highly competitive set up and running costs and our great logistic infrastructures have been a driving force in this sector. ( PortugalIN)
This is because some of the gains came at the expense of France and Spain and also because if you head south for cheaper production you might carry on doing so and end up in Algeria and Tunisia.
What about now?
Yesterday the Portuguese statistics office updated us on the services sector.
Services turnover index, in nominal terms and adjusted for calendar and seasonal effects, presented a year-on-year
change rate of -15.3% in November (-12.1% in October).
The year-on-year change rates of the indices of employment, wages and salaries and number of hours worked adjusted of calendar effects were -8.4%, -4.1% and -11.4%, respectively (-8.3%, -6.2% and -12.7% in October, by the same order).
There are two main contexts here. The first is the scale of the decline in output and next is the way that hours worked looks to be the best measure of the impact on employment. Also we get a hint of the scale of government aid and furlough as we note that wages/salaries are only 4.1% lower.
The peak for this series was the 121 of January last year ad the nadir was the 74 of April. Whereas the 100 of November means that all the gains since 2015 had faded away, hopefully temporarily.
This morning has brought a reminder of the industrial production data as Eurostat catches up. It shows an average across the Euro area of an annual fall of 0.6% so Portugal under performed here.
The Industrial Production Index (IPI) registered a year-on-year rate of change of -3.6% in November (0.4% in the previous month)……Of the Major Industrial Groupings, only Intermediate goods showed a positive year-on-year rate of change: 1.1%. Energy registered the most
negative rate of change (-10.3%), followed by Investment goods (-8.2%) and Consumer goods (-1.9%).
I guess few will be surprised about what has happened to tourism.
In November 2020, the tourist accommodation sector should have registered 416,000 guests and 950,000 overnight stays, corresponding to year-on-year
rates of change of -76.3% and -76.7% respectively (-59.7% and -63.3% in October, in the same order).
Portugal does not feature regularly in the PMI business surveys but this from the statistics office on Monday offered some clues for prospects.
The perspectives of the exporting enterprises of goods point to a nominal increase of 4.9% in exports in 2021 vis-à-vis
the previous year. Although these figures represent an improvement compared to the perspectives indicated by
enterprises for 2020 according to the preceding forecast (-13.0% ), they still not allow a recovery to values close to
those recorded before the pandemic.
In fact, should these perspectives be confirmed, the exports of goods in 2021 will correspond to a level 12.8% lower
than the total exports of goods recorded in 2019.
This survey has proved reliable in the past. So we should take the idea of an improvement but still quite a decline on pre pandemic levels seriously. In the meantime there is the likelihood of at least a one month lockdown.
The transport sector I highlighted earlier has particular problems as it was one of the worst affected areas.
It stood out the categories Transport Equipment and parts and accessories thereof (with the highest decrease expected for 2020, corresponding to -20.3%).
But not much of an expected recovery this year.
Transport equipment and parts and accessories thereof (+4.7%), mainly for Intra-EU markets (+6.8%,
+5.7% and +5.1%, respectively).
Financial Markets and Finances
There is something of a ying and yang here. If we start with the currency then Portugal will have been affected by the stronger Euro which I note has got a mention from the ECB today.
ECB’s Villeroy: We Will Keep Favourable Monetary Conditions As Long As Necessary -We Are Closely Following The Negative Effects Of The Euro Exchange Rate ( @LiveSquawk)
Although I guess it does help with the international position in one area.
At the end of the third quarter of 2020, the Portuguese economy had a net financial position vis-à-vis the rest of the world of -101.9 per cent of GDP (Chart 2), compared to -101.3 per cent of GDP at the end of the same quarter of 2019. ( Bank of Portugal)
If we switch to debt metrics then the Portuguese government is in relative terms running a tight fiscal ship.
This result reflects the net borrowing of general government and non-financial corporations (4.0 and 2.3 per cent of GDP respectively)
The latest national debt figures are running to the same tune.
In November 2020 public debt stood at €267.1 billion , a €1.1 billion decrease from the end of October. This was mainly driven by a decrease in debt securities (€1.2 billion)
General government deposits decreased by €2.0 billion, with public debt net of deposits increasing by €0.9 billion from the previous month, to a total of €244.7 billion.
These days the public debt burden is less of a debated issue because of the way that Portugal can borrow so cheaply.In fact it can borrow for ten years for effectively nothing (0.01%). As this feeds in the Bank of Portugal projects this.
The implicit interest rate on public debt is expected to fall over the projection horizon, from 2.6% in 2019 to 1.8% in 2023, which reflects the assumption that interest rates on new issues will remain low.
There are two main themes here. The first is that the Euro area crisis seems now like it is from a place “far,far away.” Back then solvency fears sent the benchmark bond yield into the teens for a while and if I remember correctly briefly as high as 21% as opposed to the present 0%. Although there does seem to be a hangover from those days as Portugal is being relatively rather restrained in its use of fiscal policy.
The next theme is that the December projections of the Bank of Portugal look rather optimistic now.
Accordingly, an 8.1% decline in GDP is projected in 2020, followed by growth of 3.9% in 2021, 4.5% in
2022 and 2.4% in 2023 . Activity will return to pre-pandemic levels at the end of 2022.
The V-shapers have proved to be rather panglossian and even that only had Portugal back to pre pandemic levels at the end of 2022. One curiosity I find is that those concerned with “output gaps” and the like seem to have disappeared. Anyway the first half of 2021 will be grim again and will follow on from a decline at the end of last year.
Let me finish with a metric that will be announced to cheers from the Frankfurt towers of the ECB.
In the 3rd quarter of 2020, the House Price Index (HPI) grew by 7.1% when compared with the same period of 2019……On a quarter-to-quarter basis, the HPI increased by 0.5% (0.8% in the 2nd quarter of 2020). By category, the existing dwellings prices increased by 0.6%, above that observed for new dwellings (0.1%).
First-time buyers will need a process of re-education before they understand how good this is for them…….