If UK growth has a “speed limit” of 1.5% how is manufacturing growing at 3.4%?

Yesterday saw the Quarterly Inflation Report of the Bank of England where its takes the opportunity to explain its views on the UK economy. There was a subject which Governor Mark Carney returned to several times and it was also in the opening statement.

It is useful to step back to assess how the economy has performed relative to the MPC’s expectations in order to understand the forces at work on it.

You are always in trouble when you have to keep telling your audience you got things right. I don’t see Pep Guardiola having to explain things like that or Eddie Jones and that is because things have gone well for them. Increasingly the Governor is finding himself having to field questions essentially based upon my theme that the Bank of England has a poor forecasting record. Actually tucked away in his statement was yet another confession.

GDP growth is expected to average around 1¾%
over the forecast period, a little stronger than projected in November.

I would like to present his main point in another way as we were told that policy is “transparent” and being done “transparently”. Okay so apply that test to this?

The MPC judges that, were the economy to evolve broadly in line with its February Inflation Report projections, monetary policy would need to be tightened somewhat earlier and by a somewhat greater extent over the forecast period than it anticipated at the time of the
November Report, in order to return inflation sustainably to the target.

So if they get things right which they usually do not then interest-rates will rise by more than the previous unspecified hint? That is opaque rather than transparent especially when you have a habit of saying things like this.

There’s already great speculation about the exact timing of the first rate hike and this decision is becoming more balanced…………..It could happen sooner than markets currently expect. (Mansion House June 2014).

What actually happened? The next move was a Bank Rate cut! Also I noted this in the Financial Times from back then.

This speech marks an important change of tone from the governor……..with rates rising earlier, further and faster than markets currently price in.

I noted this because it was from Michael Saunders who was of course giving bad advice to Citibank customers as we wonder if his enthusiasm for the Governor’s thoughts and words got him appointed to the Monetary Policy Committee?

Also I note that the 0.25% Bank Rate cut and Sledgehammer QE is claimed to have had an enormous impact.

this strategy has worked with
employment rising and slack steadily being absorbed

Yet this morning Ben Broadbent has contradicted this on BBC 5 Live’s Wake Up To Money.

dep gov Ben Broadbent said that was “true to some extent”, adding he didn’t think a couple of 25 basis point [0.25%] rises in a year would be a great shock

So if two rises are no big deal how was one cut a big deal? I guess if you send out your absent-minded professor out at the crack of dawn he is more likely to go off-piste.

Our intrepid Governor was also keen to expound on the Bank of England’s improvement in the area of diversity which he did as part of a panel composed of four middle-aged white men. As to policy independence regular readers will be well aware of my theme that the establishment took the Bank back under its control some time ago.

Today’s data

This was always going to be affected by the shutdown of the oil and gas pipeline for the Forties area in the North Sea as we already knew it has reduced GDP by around 0.05%.

In December 2017, total production was estimated to have decreased by 1.3% compared with November 2017; mining and quarrying provided the only downward contribution, falling by 19.1% as a result of the shut-down of the Forties oil pipeline for a large part of December.

Ouch indeed! However if we look deeper we see that production has been on an upwards sweep.

Total production output increased by 2.3% for the three months to December 2017 compared with the same three months to December 2016……….For the calendar year 2017, total production output increased by 2.1% compared with 2016,

Now that the Forties pipeline is back to normal there will be an additional push to the numbers.


This sector has been on a good run which has been welcome to see after years and indeed decades of relative decline.

In the three months to December 2017……..due to a rise of 1.3% in manufacturing;

As to the driving force well we have heavy metal football at Liverpool courtesy of Jurgen Klopp and maybe we have some heavy metal economics too.

Within manufacturing, 9 of the 13 manufacturing sub-sectors experienced growth; the largest contribution to quarterly growth came from basic metals and metal products, which increased by 5.7%.

If we look deeper we see this which compares the latest quarter with a year ago..

The largest upward contribution came from manufacturing, which increased by 3.4%, due to broad-based strength, with 9 of the 13 sub-sectors increasing. Transport equipment provided the largest upward contribution, increasing by 6.6%, with three of its four industries increasing. The largest upward contribution came from the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft and related machinery, while motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers fell by 0.3%.

There is something of an irony for those who found it amusing to jest that the UK would have to export to space in future as we indeed seem to be doing so. Of course space has been in the news this week with the successful, launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket with the successful landing of two of the three boosters which according to the Meatloaf critique “aint bad” and was also awe-inspiring. As you can imagine I heartily approve of it playing Space Oddity on repeat and the way Don’t Panic flashes on the car dashboard in big friendly letters.

Returning to manufacturing we have nearly made our way back to the place we were once before as the Eagles might put it.

 both production and manufacturing output have risen but remain below their level reached in the pre-downturn gross domestic product (GDP) peak in Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2008, by 5.2% and 0.5% respectively in the three months to December 2017.


The familiar theme is as ever of yet another deficit but the December numbers were even more difficult to interpret than usual due to the impact of the Forties pipeline closure. This was its impact on the latest quarter.

The 21.6% decrease in export volumes of fuels (mainly oil) had a large impact on the fall in export volumes. When excluding oil export volumes increased by 1.3%……The value increase in fuels imports was due largely to price movements, as fuels import prices increased by 14.2% while fuels import volumes increased by 0.3%.

If we look back 2017 was a better year for UK trade.

UK export volumes up 7.4% between 2016 & 2017, import volumes were up 4.1%

This meant that the trade deficit fell by £7 billion ( not by £70 billion as was initially reported) so the cautionary note is that we still have a long way to go.


Today’s numbers provide their own critique to the rhetoric of Mark Carney and the Bank of England. Let me show you the two. Firstly the data.

The largest upward contribution came from manufacturing, which increased by 3.4%

Yet according to the Bank of England this is the “speed limit”.

the MPC judges that very little spare capacity remains and that supply capacity will grow only modestly over the
forecast, averaging around 1½% a year.

If you think it through logically it is an area where you would expect physical constraints and yet it does not seem to be bothered. Indeed the other area where there are physical constraints has done even better on an annual comparison.

 construction output in Great Britain grew by 5.1% in 2017

So as ever the Bank of England prefers its models to reality and if you listened carefully to the press conference Ben Broadbent confirmed this. What he did not say was that he is persisting with this in spite of a shocking track record.

Just for clarity the construction numbers are correct but had really strong growth followed by the more recent weakness. However as I have pointed out many times care is needed as we regularly get significant revisions..






The UK manufacturing boom is boosting both GDP and productivity

Today will bring us up to speed or at least up to the end of November on a range of areas of the UK economy. Some of it may well be contrasting as we mull the hoped for manufacturing boom but also not that the construction sector has fallen into a recession. As we do so there are plenty of more up to date influences at play as we note that the UK Pound £ has improved to around US $1.35 versus the US Dollar which means that on annual inflation comparisons it no longer boosts inflation as it is up around 13 cents over that period. So instead it will come to be a brake on our above target inflationary episode although as ever life is not simple as we note that the rise in the oil price I looked at on the has continued with the price of a barrel of Brent Crude Oil pushing above US $69 this morning making a three-year high.


We so rarely see good news in this area so let me bring you this from today’s Sainsburys results.

The 4% pay rise for staff was paid for out of cost savings says Mike Coupe, CEO ….so no impact on pricing or margins…. ( h/t Karen Tso of CNBC)

We see so little sign of wage growth above 2% these days so anything like this is welcome and indeed if we look a little further it is not the only such sign in the retail sector.

 Aldi is increasing pay for store staff after it enjoyed a bumper Christmas with sales up 15% in December…..

Aldi said it was increasing the minimum hourly rate of pay for store assistants to £8.85 nationally, a 3.75% rise, and to £10.20 in London, a 4.6% boost, from 1 February.

The company, which also pays employees for breaks unlike some chains, claimed it was reaffirming its position as the UK’s highest-paying supermarket.

The rates match the independently verified living wage recommended by the Living Wage Foundation, although Aldi is not formally accredited to the scheme as not all its workers are guaranteed the rate as a minimum.

As you were probably already aware the retail sector is not a high payer so the increases are good news in an era of concern over poverty whilst being at work and higher food bank usage.  Or to put it another way an era where we have a need for a Living Wage Foundation.

Mind you not all wage boosts are well received. From yesterday’s Guardian.

The chief executive of housebuilder Persimmon has insisted he deserves his £110m bonus because he has “worked very hard” to reinvigorate the housing market.

Jeff Fairburn collected the first £50m worth of shares on New Year’s Eve from the record-breaking bonus scheme that has been described as “obscene” and “corporate looting”. He will qualify for another £60m of profits from the scheme this year.

That will no doubt be much more than the total effect of the Sainsburys wages rise and in fact we can go further.

The scheme – believed to be Britain’s most generous-ever bonus payout – will hand more than £500m to those 140 senior staff.

The real problem is that this has mostly been fed to them by the UK taxpayer via this.

More than half the homes sold by York-based Persimmon last year went to help-to-buy recipients, meaning government money helped finance the sales.

Noble Francis has kindly helped us out on the subject.

Apropos of nothing, Persimmon‘s share price from the day before Help to Buy (19 March 2013) was announced till 8 January 2018. A 183% rise.

Whilst equity markets have been having a good run the general move is of course nothing like that.

What about consumer credit?

According to the Bank of England worries from people like me are overblown, From the Bank Underground blog.

Credit growth not being disproportionately driven by subprime borrowers is reassuring. As is the lack of evidence that mortgage lending restrictions are pushing mortgagors towards taking on consumer credit.

So that’s alright then. But now that a reassuring line has been taking ( both for unsecured credit and the author’s careers) there is of course the fear that my analysis may be right so we get.

But vulnerabilities remain. Consumers remain indebted for longer than previously thought. And renters with squeezed finances may be an increasingly important (and vulnerable) driver of growth in consumer credit.

In the end it is a bit like the Japanese word Hai which we translate as yes but in my time there I learnt that it also covers maybe and can slide therefore into no!

Today’s Data


There is a continuation of what is rapidly becoming a good news area for the UK economy.

Manufacturing output increased ( 0.4%) for the seventh consecutive month, for the first time on record;

If we look for more detail we see this.

Manufacturing has shown similar signs of strength with output rising by 1.4% in the three months to November 2017…….Manufacturing output was 3.9% higher in the three months to November 2017 compared with the same three months in 2016, which is the strongest rate of growth since March 2011; on this basis, growth has now been above 3% for four consecutive three-months-on-a-year periods, which is the first time since June 2011.

We know from the various business surveys ( CBI and Markit PMI) that this is expected to continue. The growth is broad-based although regular readers will not be surprised that one area failed to take part.

 The downward contribution came from a decrease of 7.1% in motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; the largest fall since August 2014 when it fell by 7.7%.

This of course provides food for thought for the unsecured credit analysis above via car loans.


This too was upbeat mostly as a function of manufacturing which provided 2.77% of the growth recorded below.

Total production increased by 3.3% in the three months to November 2017, compared with the same three months to November 2016.

There was good news from the past tucked away in this as October’s numbers were revised higher.


For once we had some better news here.

The total UK trade (goods and services) deficit narrowed by £2.1 billion to £6.2 billion in the three months to November 2017; excluding erratic commodities, the total deficit narrowed by £1.2 billion to £6.1 billion.

As ever we have a deficit but maybe we are beginning to see the impact of better manufacturing data and more of this would help/

a £0.9 billion widening of the trade in services surplus due to increases in exports.

Actually the general export position is looking the best it has been for some time.

The UK total trade deficit (goods and services) narrowed by £4.3 billion between the three months to November 2016 and the three months to November 2017; this was due primarily to a 10.6% (£8.4 billion) increase in goods exports, which was higher than the increase in goods imports.

Is that the lower overall level of the UK Pound £ in play? Or to be more specific the reverse J curve ending and the more formal J Curve beginning.


There was a glimmer of good news here.

Construction output rose by 0.4% in November 2017 as growth in private new housing increased by 4.1%,

However that is not yet enough to end the recessionary winds blowing across this sector.

Construction output fell by 2.0% in the three months to November 2017, which is the largest three-month fall since August 2012


The news is good for manufacturing and must be received rather wryly by the former Governor of the Bank of England Baron King of Lothbury. He of course talked often about a rebalancing towards manufacturing but the fall in the Pound £ on his watch (2007/08) did not help much, whereas the post June 2016 fall is doing better. The difference in my opinion is that the world economic situation is much better. Also we may see more of this which hopefully will help wage growth.

UK labour productivity, as measured by output per hour, is estimated to have grown by 0.9% from Quarter 2 (Apr to June) 2017 to Quarter 3 (July to Sept) 2017; this is the largest increase in productivity since Quarter 2 2011.

The manufacturing boom has lifted production and finally seems to be impacting on trade which might have Baron King putting a splash of cognac in his morning coffee! Mind you the current incumbent of that role may have some food for thought also from the trade improvement as Rebecca Harding points out.

Has anyone told the how closely correlated with financial fraud trade in works of art is?

Isn’t Mark Carney a keen art buyer? Anyway I am sure there is nothing to see there and we should move on.

The cloud in the silver lining is construction which is beginning to benefit from some extra house building but has yet to break the recessionary winds blowing. On a personal level it is hard to believe with all the building at Nine Elms so near which must be that elsewhere there must be quite a desert.



Ireland puts another nail in the coffin of GDP statistics

Friday brought news on a subject that is genuinely troubling so let me hand you over to Bloomberg.

Ireland’s economy surged in the third quarter, boosted by rising exports and falling imports.

On the face of it this is good news for Ireland but you barely need to touch the surface to see that there is as Taylor Swift would put it “trouble,trouble,trouble”. Let us go to the Central Statistics office release.

On a seasonally adjusted basis, initial estimates indicate that GDP in volume terms increased by 4.2 percent for the third quarter of 2017. Real GNP increased by 11.9 per cent over the same period.

There are some obvious initial issues as we note that these are not annual numbers or even annualised ones but quarterly data. Those who doubt a first world economy can grow by 4.2% in a quarter then find themselves facing a mind-boggling 11.9% from the GNP measure. So let us steel ourselves and look at the annual data.

Initial estimates for the third quarter of 2017 indicate that there was an increase of 10.5 per cent in GDP in real terms in Q3 2017 compared with Q3 2016………Factor income outflows were 7.7 per cent higher than in the same quarter of 2016 resulting in an increase in GNP of 11.2 per cent year-on-year.

So we have double-digit growth on both measures but even more bizarrely pretty much all the GNP growth came in the latest quarter! So the economy did just about nothing for 9 months and then in the next quarter flew out of the water like the most athletic Irish salmon you have ever seen?

Detailed problems

The Irish Ivory Towers will be having a party as they observe a sea of export-led growth.

Exports increased by 4.4 per cent in Q3 2017 compared with Q2 2017 which when combined with an import decrease of 10.9 per cent meant overall net exports for the quarter increased by 63.1 per cent.

This meant that even countries like Germany or China would be jealous of the trade position.

The Balance of Payments current account, a measure of Ireland’s economic flows with the rest of the world, had a surplus of €14,488m (18.7% of GDP) in the third quarter of 2017.

However in the previous quarter there has been a deficit of 872 million Euros so what really drove the change which exceeded 15 billion Euros?

Service imports at €38,842m were down €8,625m over the same period in 2016.

As we look further we sign a sign of a particularly Irish issue.

These figures were affected by reduced levels of research and development costs, in particular intellectual property imports.

Let me hand you over to the official view on this.

These figures were affected by reduced levels of research and development costs, in particular intellectual property imports.

The numbers are a combination of mind-boggling and bizarre as we see that the R& D sector which is essentially intellectual property saw import growth from 19 billion Euros in 2015 to 47 billion Euros in 2016 but now has seen a quarter of only 3.6 billion. So slower than 2015 when the economy is apparently booming?

The issue of plummeting imports in an economic boom is a fundamental one and frankly on its own would have the Starship Enterprise on red alert.

A space oddity

A perhaps curious consequence of this provokes a wry smile. You see Ireland has moved into a current account surplus with the UK just as the UK Pound £ has fallen and made its exports more competitive. I will leave the Ivory Towers to explain that one.

A manufacturing boom

We have got used to seeing manufacturing declines in the western world and Ireland was in that camp with output falling from 45.2 billion Euros ( 2015 prices) in 2011 to 43 billion in 2013. But there was quite a boom to follow as we note that output was 92.4 billion Euros in 2016.  Actually the boom came in one-quarter because as the clocks recorded a New Year as 2014 ended then quarterly manufacturing was on its way from 10.7 billion Euros to 23.5 billion. Another way of putting the surge was that it was 101.4% higher than a year before.

Since then it has done very little having risen gently. The issue at hand is what is called contract manufacturing where the products may never have been within Ireland’s borders. Finfacts has reported this.

However, we reported in 2012 that Dell Products Ireland which closed its PC plant in Limerick in 2009 remained one of Ireland’s biggest exporters and manufacturers as it booked the output of its Polish plant in Ireland.

And this.

Data from the Fiscal Advisory Council (FAC) show that 2.5% of the 5.8% rise in Irish GDP (gross domestic product) in H1 2014, or 43%, came from contract manufacturing overseas, that has no material impact on jobs in the economy. Dell, the PC company, books its Polish output in Ireland for tax avoidance purposes.

We will have to see going forwards but the investment figures were not especially hopeful.

Capital formation declined by 36.0 per cent in Q3 2017 compared with the previous quarter.

This is an especially serious area because manufacturing produces actual things which we should ( especially in an information technology revolution) be able to count increasingly accurately. Instead we seem unable to count it at all. This affects many economic figures as there is something of a gap between monthly goods exports in the mid to high 20 billion Euros counted in the trade figures and the 40 billion plus in the national accounts.


On the face of it the Fitch Ratings report was good news.

 On the basis of data up to 2Q, we estimate real GDP growth for this year of 5%. Early estimates for 3Q point to stronger GDP growth……..Fitch forecasts the general government debt-to-GDP ratio to fall to 65.8% by 2019, from 72.8% at end-2016 (1.1 percentage points of which is due to the sale of part of the state’s stake in AIB).

Even they had to admit though that the numbers are doubtful and it is hard to forget their catastrophic efforts in 2007 of pronouncing the Irish banking sector to be in good shape as you read this.

Fitch believes the health of the banking sector is improving, reducing risks to the Irish sovereign and economy. The ratio of non-performing loans (NPL) has fallen to 11.9% in 2Q17 from a peak of 25.7% in 2Q13.


Back in time I used to visit clients in Dublin at this time of year and would be looking forwards to the restaurants around St.Stephens Green and some Guinness. However back then building and development work was increasing this described below by the Tax Justice Network.

 The second big development has been the Dublin-based International Financial Services Centre (IFSC), a Wild-West, deregulated financial zone set up in 1987 under the “voraciously corrupt” Irish politician Charles Haughey:

The issue of tax is hard to avoid as money crosses Ireland’s borders in all directions but in particular seems to slip past the tax collectors. From Fortune.

The European Commission ruled last year that a tax deal that Ireland gave Apple was illegal, and that it owed the country $14.5 billion in back taxes. Ireland has been dragging their feet a little bit when it comes to collecting on that debt,

Unusual isn’t it for a country to not actually want tax? After all there are plenty of things it could be spent on. From the Irish Times.

In October 2014, when The Irish Times first interviewed some of Dublin’s homeless children, they numbered 680 in 307 families. Although Enda Kenny, then taoiseach, said no child should be homeless, their numbers have increased 256 per cent.

So how much economic activity is happening? The Central Bank of Ireland helps us out a bit.

GNI* excludes the impact of redomiciled
companies and the depreciation of intellectual
property products and of leased aircraft from
GNI. When this is done, the level of nominal
GNI* is approximately two-thirds of the level
of nominal GDP in 2016.

Please do not misunderstand me as there are signs of economic improvement in Ireland as for example tax revenues have risen and unemployment fallen. Yet in spite of the apparent economic boom the unemployment rate at 6.1% is above the pre crisis rate of 5% and that is in spite of those on government schemes. Thus the picture is complicated as we see enormous sums wash in and out of the Irish economy relegating the national accounts to a picture of tax avoidance more than economic activity in general.





Car production for export is boosting the UK economy

This morning has brought us a barrage of news on the UK economy and no I do not mean the apparent progress on the negotiations with the European Union. Though even if we dodge the politics it is nice to see a better phase for the UK Pound £ with it rising to above US $1.34 and 1.14 to the Euro as well as above 153 Yen. The barrage came as it is one of the theme days at the Office for National Statistics giving us an outpouring of data on the UK economy.

Let us start with a nod to my subject of Wednesday which was the automotive or car sector.

In October 2017, car production grew by 4.6% compared with September 2017 to match the record index level reached in July 2017.

If we look into the detail we see this.

Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers provided a similar contribution and rose by 6.3%. An increase in export turnover of 20.7% was reported by this sub-industry compared with October 2016;

This further reinforces the view that UK car production is mostly for export as otherwise the rise in production of 4.6% in October would look very odd with the fall in registrations of 11.2% on a year on year basis. Here is the data in chart form.

A little care is needed as this is a value or turnover index and not volume so it is a little inflated but not I would suspect a lot. With the same caveat it is in fact a record.

 Within the MBS production industries dataset, the value of exports for the motor vehicle, trailers and semi-trailers were at a record level in October 2017, exceeding £4 billion for the first time.

Of course single monthly data can be misleading but the news remains good if we look further back for more perspective.

Within this sector, transport equipment provided the largest contribution, rising by 2.5%, due mainly to an increase of 3.2% in motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers following an increase of 4.2% in the three months to September 2017. The index level for motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers averaged 107.1 in the three months to October 2017 due to a strong increase in exports during October 2017, compared with 103.8 in the three months to July 2017, due mainly to a weak June 2017.

If we look further back we see that vehicle production was blitzed by the credit crunch falling from 95.1 in August 2007 where  2015 = 100 to a chilling 45.6 in February 2009. It is no coincidence that the Bank of England introduced QE then when you look at that icy cold plummet. We did not reach the levels of the summer of 2007 until the spring of 2014 which makes one think. Over that period there was scope for plenty of what might come under the category of “tractor production is increasing” but it is also true that there were nearly seven lost years. Since then we have done well with both exports and home sales rising but the latter has been a smaller influence which is fortunate as it is now over!

Over the years and decades I have followed the UK economy it is not that often one can say or type that the economy is being helped by strong car production and exports.


This is also having a good phase.

The largest upward contribution came from manufacturing, which increased by 3.9%. There was broad-based strength throughout the sector, with 11 of the 13 sub-sectors increasing.

So there was a strong increase on a year ago and as well as the car sector we have already looked at we seem to have ambitions for what in the end will be the largest market of all.

Within this sub-sector, air and spacecraft and related machinery increased by 11.5%, continuing the prolonged month-on-same-month a year ago strength for this sub-industry since November 2014.

Not quite the “space aliens” that Paul Krugman once opined we needed but we seem to be doing well in the more mundane business of satellites and the like.

Just for clarity the pharmaceutical industry seems to be growing modestly as opposed to the yo-yo movements we did see and the overall picture still could do with some improvement.

manufacturing output has risen but remain below its level reached in the pre-downturn gross domestic product (GDP) peak in Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2008, by 2.1% respectively in the three months to October 2017.

At least we are getting there.


Some might say that the better vehicle export data might take us from our desert of deficits in this area into an oasis. But maybe we will have to live forever to see that.

When erratic commodities are excluded, the value of the total UK trade deficit widened by £0.8 billion to £6.9 billion in the three months to October 2017.


We did export more but in a familiar pattern we imported at an even faster rate.

The widening excluding erratic commodities was due primarily to trade in goods imports increasing 2.9% (£3.3 billion) to £116.5 billion, which was offset slightly by a 0.5% (£0.2 billion) decrease in trade in services imports. Although trade in goods exports increased 1.7% (£1.4 billion) to £81.7 billion, the increase in imports was larger, therefore the total trade deficit excluding erratic commodities widened.


However if we switch to volumes maybe there is a little by little improvement.

Total goods export volumes increased 3.2% in the three months to October 2017, which was the fourth consecutive and largest increase since January 2017. Import volumes increased 0.5% over the same period.



This was driven higher by the manufacturing data.

In the three months to October 2017, the Index of Production was estimated to have increased by 1.2% compared with the three months to July 2017…….Total production output for October 2017 compared with October 2016 increased by 3.6%

The other factor pushing it up was North Sea Oil and Gas where not only less maintenance but some new oilfields opened in the summer. Thus for once we seem to have higher output with higher prices ( Brent Crude is ~ US $63 as I type this).

We also got an example of why economics is called the dismal science as most people would be pleased to have better weather and not to have to turn the heating on!

 energy supply provided the largest downward contribution, decreasing by 3.3%, mainly because of unseasonably warm temperatures in October 2017,

Its effect was to subtract 0.39% from production in October meaning the monthly change was 0%.

The overall picture here lags the manufacturing one partly due to the decline of North Sea Oil.

production output has risen but remains below their level reached in the pre-downturn gross domestic product (GDP) peak in Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2008, by 6.1% in the three months to October 2017.


These did fit with the view I expressed on Monday. The present seems recessionary.

Construction output contracted for the sixth consecutive period in the three-month on three-month time series, falling by 1.4% in October 2017.

The future looks brighter.

New orders saw record growth in Quarter 3 (July to September) 2017, growing by 37.4% compared with the previous quarter.The record growth was driven predominantly by growth in the infrastructure sector, caused by the awarding of several high-value new orders relating to High Speed 2 (HS2).

So a definitely maybe then especially as we note that it is for HS2 which seems so set in stone such that we will have to roll with it I guess.


In terms of official data and business surveys the UK is seeing a good period for manufacturing particularly in the vehicle sector which is pulling overall production higher. Whilst it is only 14% of our economy these days the improvement is welcome. The rise in vehicle exports has not yet been picked up by the trade figures as I note the use of the phrase “to be exported” in the production data so hopefully we will see this in the trade figures for November and December.

The trade figures have a problem as you see there is plenty of detail on the goods sector but virtually nothing on services! I have scanned it again and can only seem a mention of services imports. This is pretty woeful if you consider it is the largest sector of our economy and frankly no wonder these numbers are “not a national statistic”. It is frightening that they then go into the GDP numbers and even more frightening that we will get monthly GDP data soon.

The construction series is “not a national statistic” meaning that in this instance I have to disagree with Meatloaf about the three main series analysed today.

Now don’t be sad (Cause)
‘Cause two out of three ain’t bad





What about QE for manufacturing and construction rather than stock and bond markets?

Let us begin today by looking at something to cheer the cockles of a central bankers heart. Firstly from Alliance News on Tuesday.

The FTSE 100 index closed up 1.93 points at 7,562.28 on Monday, building on its fresh all-time closing high set on Friday.

It has dipped away from that level a little since but never mind as the Bank of England is usually behind the times and no-one will notice it especially if a chart from 2008 showing it around 3800 then is used. What a triumph for the period of lower interest-rates and QE ( Quantitative Easing). Tuesday brought us this from the Halifax..

House prices rose by 0.3% between September and October, following a 0.8% increase in September. The average price of £225,826 is the highest on record and 2.8% higher than in January (£219,741).

So as you can see the ” wealth effects” should be pouring into the economy right now. Sadly unlike the Bank of Japan there are no equity and property holdings to claim a profit on but never mind. If you are a young researcher in Threadneedle Street the way to career advancement is to write about wealth effects boosting the economy especially if you avoid writing about how the major wealth effects are for the few rather than the many.


There has been some potential good news on this front as well. Yesterday the agents of the Bank of England reported this.

Recruitment difficulties had intensified and were above normal in a range of activities, alongside continued
modest employment growth. As a result, pay growth had edged up and was expected to be somewhat higher in
2018 than this year.

This of course brings them into line with the official Bank of England view from the past 5 years or so that wage growth is rising. Of course the possible catch is that the Bank is not only the witness but the judge and jury here as we mull what somewhat higher means? One group who have managed a solid wage rise are these. From the Evening Standard about Southern Rail.

Members of Aslef, the train drivers’ union backed the deal, which includes a 28.5 per cent pay rise over the next five years, by 731 votes to 193, a majority of 79 per cent.

Industrial action by train drivers leading to pay rises feels like something from the 70s and maybe 80s but long-suffering commuters from the south will be grateful if this puts an end to the problems. As to the pattern of wages growth going forwards we can only wait and see if what used to be called “relativity’s” re-emerge and it leads to wage claims and rises elsewhere. That sort of thing has been missing for some time and is a hint that the UK employment situation may not be as strong as the headline figures imply. Although Governor Carney thinks the opposite.

with unemployment at a 42 year low, more people in work than ever before. This isn’t a false read on
the unemployment rate,


Here we find that Governor Carney was very bullish for their immediate prospects after his Bank Rate rise.

It will have an impact on borrowers over time, it will have a more immediate positive impact on savers, in terms of deposit rates.

So that is the state of play in his Ivory Tower, meanwhile if we look at the real world the BBC reported this yesterday.

Seven days after the rise in base rates, just 17 out of 150 providers have passed on improved returns to their savers.

The Bank of England raised rates by 0.25% to 0.5% last Thursday, the first rise in a decade.

Many banks are still considering whether to pass on the benefits.

But even if their provider does choose to increase rates in full, some savers will still find themselves worse off than when rates were last at 0.5%.

As to the slower impact on borrowers.

By contrast, lenders have been quick to raise the cost of mortgages.

Most customers with tracker mortgages have seen an immediate rise of 0.25%.

So far 20 banks have announced increases to their Standard Variable Rate (SVR) mortgages, including Barclays, Halifax, Lloyds, Nationwide, Santander and TSB.

Poor old Mark perhaps he might like to play some PM Dawn to help relax.

Reality used to be a friend of mine
Reality used to be a friend of mine
Maybe “why?” is the question that’s on you mind
But reality used to be a friend of mine


This morning’s numbers brought some good news for the UK economy but mixed news for the Bank of England.

In September 2017, total production was estimated to have increased by 0.7% compared with August 2017……Total production output for September 2017 compared with September 2016 increased by 2.5%.

It might only be 14% of the economy these days but it has improved recently and this improvement has been driven by this.

Manufacturing provided the largest upward contribution, increasing by 0.7%, with 10 of the 13 sub-sectors rising. This is the fifth consecutive monthly rise in this sector and follows growth of 0.4% in August 2017. Machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified provided the largest upward contribution to the growth in manufacturing, rising by 3.2%, following 0.0% in August 2017.

Also North Sea Oil and Gas ended its maintenance period and of course as we go forwards ( these numbers are up to September) will be seeing higher oil prices. Also those who joke we might need to trade with space in future well…..

Within this sub-sector, air and spacecraft and related machinery rose by 10.2%.


Whilst there was better news from the monthly data for September alone the background picture continued on its usual not very merry way.

Between the three months to June 2017 and the three months to September 2017 (Quarter 2 (Apr to June) 2017 to Quarter 3 (July to Sept) 2017), total trade (goods and services) exports decreased by 0.2% (£0.3 billion), while total trade imports increased by 1.6% (£2.6 billion). This resulted in a widening of the total trade (goods and services) deficit by £3.0 billion to £9.5 billion.

There are some ways in which this fits with the other data we have for example weaker oil exports go with the summer maintenance period and higher exports of vehicles with the manufacturing data. But it is odd that exports are falling with rising production and particularly manufacturing figures. Perhaps we will find over time that exports of services were higher than we thought at the time.

Trade in services exports have been revised up by £0.3 billion for both July and August 2017. This is due to survey data replacing earlier estimates.


I have been worried about the accuracy of these numbers for some time ( regular readers may recall when a large business was switched from services to construction a couple of years ago which did not inspire confidence). However such as they are the sector has plunged into a recession.

However, construction dropped for the second quarter running, driven by falls in commercial work and housing repairs……Activity in the construction sector continued to weaken in Quarter 3 2017, with total output falling by 0.9%……..consecutive quarterly declines in current estimates of total construction output have not been seen since Quarter 3 2012.

I asked online for thoughts as to why this might be and one group of replies suggested a combination of a lack of demand and uncertainty.Another suggested that the credit crunch wiped out some smaller house builders which have never really been replaced.


There is a lot to consider here. Let us start with some good news which is that the production sector has improved and it has been driven by manufacturing. That is not showing up yet in the trade figures on any grand scale but there is hope we will see that feed in as 2017 ends and moves into 2018. As to construction it is in a decline and recession and I wonder if Governor Carney will be awake at night thinking that the £10 billion he splashed around in the corporate bond market or the £60 billion giving Gilt holders an early Christmas present might have been better spent helping the real economy?. Should it be the case it is suffering from uncertainty and a lack of demand there may be a case for government spending here. The main flaw in that is of course we might get more expensive projects like HS2 and Hinkley Point.

However perspective is also needed because if we look at the credit crunch era construction has recovered well. If we use 2010 as our benchmark then in August it at 118.5 was even above services at 117.2 and way ahead of manufacturing at 106 and production at 101.7.

If I return to the title of this piece if only the Bank of England put the same effort into supporting UK manufacturing as it has into propping up the housing market. Of the £90.1 billion of the Term Funding Scheme the only way I see it helping manufacturing is via the car leasing/finance sector and of course that mostly helps overseas manufacturers.








Let us continue to remember what has been inflicted on Greece

Yesterday the Financial Times revealed the results of an intriguing poll in Greece,

More than half of all Greeks agreed it was a mistake to have joined the euro. Barely a third of Greeks thought the euro wasn’t a mistake. Even among those who wanted to remain in the euro area at the end of 2015, fewer than half would have chosen to join again if given the chance to go back in time and warn their fellow citizens.

That survey took place almost two years ago. Since then, Walter finds that support for the euro has dropped by 10 percentage points.

Frankly I find it a bit of a surprise that even more Greeks do not think that joining the Euro was a mistake! But in life we see so often that some support the status quo again and again almost regardless of what it is. After all so many in the media and in my profession have sung along to Blur about Euro area membership for Greece.

There’s no other way
There’s no other way
All that you can do is watch them play

Regular readers will be aware that I have been arguing there was and indeed is another way since 2011. One of the saddest parts of this sorry saga has been the way that those who have plunged Greece into a severe economic depression accused those suggesting alternatives of heading for economic catastrophe.

If we look at the current state of play we see this.

The available seasonally adjusted data indicate that in the 2nd quarter of 2017 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in volume terms increased by 0.5% in comparison with the 1 st quarter of 2017, while in comparison with the 2nd quarter of 2016, it increased by 0.8%.

So economic growth but not very much especially if we note that this is a good year for the Euro area in total. So far not much of that has fed through to Greece although any signs of growth are welcome. To put this in economic terms this is an L-shaped recovery as opposed to the V-shaped one in my scenario. The horizontal part of the L is the fact that growth after the drop has been weak. The vertical drop in the L is illustrated by the fact that twice during its crisis the Greek economy shrank at an annual rate of 10% leaving an economy which had quarterly GDP of 63 billion Euros as 2008 opened now has one of 46.4 billion Euros. By anyone’s standards that is quite an economic depression.

Some good news

Here I would like to switch to what used to be the objective of the International Monetary Fund or IMF which is trade. In essence it helped countries with trade deficits by suggesting programme’s involving reform, austerity and devaluation/depreciation. The French managing directors of the IMF were never going to be keen on devaluation for Greece for obvious reasons and as to reform well you hear Mario Draghi call for that at every single European Central Bank press conference which only left austerity.

This was a shame as you see there was quite a problem. From the Bank of Greece.

In 2010, the current account deficit fell by €1.8 billion or 6.9% in comparison with 2009 and came to €24.0 billion or 10.5% of GDP (2009: 11.0% of GDP).

Even the improvement back then was bad as it was caused by this.

Specifically, the import bill for goods excluding oil and ships fell by €3.9 billion or 12.6%,

The deficit improvement was caused by the economic collapse. Now let us take the TARDIS of Dr. Who and leap forwards in time to the present.

In the January-August 2017 period, the current account improved year-on-year, as the €211 million deficit turned into a €123 million surplus.

This was driven by a welcome rise in tourism to Greece.

In August 2017, the current account showed a surplus of €1.8 billion, up by €163 million year-on-year………The rise in the surplus of the services balance is due to an improvement mostly in the travel balance, since non-residents’ arrivals and the corresponding receipts increased by 14.3% and 16.4%, respectively.

The Bank of Greece is so pleased with the new state of play that it did some in-depth research to discover that it is essentially a European thing.

In January-August 2017, travel receipts increased by 9.1%, relative to the same period of 2016, to €10,524 million. This development is attributed to a 14.5% rise in receipts from within the EU28 to €7,117 million,

I am pleased to note that my country is doing its bit to help Greece which with the weaker Pound £ might not have been expected and that Germans seem both welcome and willing to go.

as did receipts from Germany, by 29.0% to €1,638 million. Receipts from the United Kingdom also increased, by 17.7% to €1,512 million.

So finally we have some better news but there are two catches sadly. The first is that it has taken so long and the second is that Greek should have a solid surplus in terms of scale after such a depression.

Money Money Money

A sign of what Taylor Swift would call “trouble,trouble,trouble” can be found in the monetary system. The media world may have moved onto pastures new but Greece is still suffering from the capital flight of 2015.

On 26 October 2017 the Governing Council of the ECB did not object to an ELA-ceiling for Greek banks of €28.6 billion, up to and including Wednesday, 8 November 2017, following a request by the Bank of Greece.

The amount of Emergency Liquidity Assistance is shrinking but it remains a presence indicating that the banking system still cannot stand on its own two feet. This means that the flow of credit is still not what it should be.

In September 2017, the annual growth rate of total credit extended to the economy stood at -1.5%, unchanged from the previous month and the monthly net flow was negative at €552 million, compared with a negative net flow of €241 million in the previous month.

Also in a country where the central bank has official interest-rates of 0% and -0.4% we see that banks remain afraid to spread the word to ordinary depositors.

The overall weighted average interest rate on all new deposits stood at 0.29%, unchanged from the previous month.

Also we learn that negative official interest-rates are not destructive to bank profits and how banks plan to recover profits in one go.

The spread* between loan and deposit rates stood at 4.26 percentage points from 4.28 points in the previous month.


There is a lot to consider here but we can see clearly that the “internal devaluation” economic model or if you prefer the suppression of real wages has been a disaster on an epic scale. Economic output collapsed as wages dropped and unemployment soared. Even now the unemployment rate is 21% and the youth unemployment is 42.8%, how many of the latter will never find employment? As for the outlook well in the positive situation that the Euro area sees overall this from Markit on Greek manufacturing prospects is a disappointment.

“The latest PMI data continue to paint a positive
picture of the Greek manufacturing sector, with the
headline PMI signalling an improvement in
business conditions for the fifth month in
succession……….There was, however, a notable slowdown in output growth, which poses a slight cause for concern
going forward.

A bit more than a slight concern I would say.

Meanwhile I note that the media emphasis has moved on as this from Bloomberg Gadfly indicates.

Greece is taking a step closer to get the respect it deserves from Europe.

It is how?

Yields on the country’s government bonds, which have already taken great strides lower this year, hit a new low last week on news the government is preparing a major debt swap.

I have no idea how the latter means the former but let us analyse the state of play. Lower bond yields for Greece are welcome but are currently irrelevant as it is essentially funded by the institutions and mostly by the European Stability Mechanism. There are in fact so few bonds to trade.

So Greece will have an opportunity to issue debt more expensively than it can fund itself via the ESM now? Why would it do that? We come back to the fact that it would get it out of the austerity programme! Not quite the Respect sung about by Aretha Franklin is it?


What is happening in the US economy?

It is time and in some ways past time for another delve into the state of play in the US economy which some would have you believe has been doing extraordinarily well. I spotted this from @Trickyjabs on Twitter earlier this week.

George Osborne, January 2015:
“Britain could be richer than US by 2030”

2.5 years later:
US GDP +21.5%
UK GDP +4.5%

If we skip the attempt to make a political point this is the sort of thing to cheer Donald Trump especially if he could find a way to argue it had all happened this year! Sadly of course the lesson here is not to use figures you do not understand as the US figures are realised in an annualised version. So still better than the UK but not by much.


If we look back we see that the US Bureau of Economic Analysis or BEA tells us that economic output as measured by GDP peaked at 14.99 Trillion US Dollars in the last quarter of 2007 ( 2009 prices). If we jump forwards to the second quarter of this year we see that it had risen to 17.03 Trillion US Dollars. So if we allow for the likely growth in the third quarter an increase of the order of 14%. This tells us that the US has done relatively well on this measure but that growth is lower than what used to be considered normal. Putting it another way we have a type of confirmation that as output did not reach its previous peak until halfway through 2011 the new normal for economic growth may be of the order of 2% per annum.

Also the BEA gives us an insight into the structure of the US economy which goes as follows. 69% is consumption, just under 17% is investment and just over 17% is the government. You may have spotted a mathematical flaw which is solved when we put in net trade which is -3%.So investment has fallen as has the relative size of the government and the gap has partly been filled by services consumption rising from 44% to 47%.

Perhaps the most interesting change is the decline in the trade deficit which peaked at just under 6% of GDP before the credit crunch but is now around 3%. I wonder how much of a role the shale oil industry has played in this.

Looking ahead

One view was expressed by the Donald back in August. From CNBC.

“If we achieve sustained 3 percent growth that means 12 million new jobs and $10 trillion of new economic activity. That’s some number,” Trump said during a speech last month in Missouri promoting tax reform. “I happen to be one that thinks we can go much higher than 3 percent. There’s no reason we shouldn’t.”

If the US Federal Reserve was on board with that then we would have seen more interest-rate increases but its latest forecasts suggest annual economic growth of around 2%. So belatedly they have caught up with us on here!


This is an intriguing one as markets expect another rise to circa 1.25% in December and it became more intriguing as we learnt this from the European Central Bank and its President Mario Draghi yesterday.

Real GDP increased by 0.7%, quarter on quarter, in the second quarter of 2017, after 0.6% in the first quarter. The latest data and survey results point to unabated growth momentum in the second half of this year

So better than the US so far in 2017 and the Euro area has seen growth for a while.

Growth is growing and momentum is also growing and labour market and everything is doing – well, I think it’s, I can’t remember how many quarters of consecutive growth, 17 I believe.

But the picture for interest-rates is completely different.

The sequence stays what it is, namely this – the interest rates will stay and they remain at their present – are expected to remain at their present levels for an extended period of time and well past the horizon of our net asset purchases.

So President Draghi is giving us Forward Guidance that the ECB deposit rate will remain at -0.4% for at least the next couple of years and maybe beyond. This is because the cut to the monthly amount of QE to 30 billion Euros a month was accompanied by not only an extension of its term but more hints that it might go “on and on and on ” to coin a phrase.

Whilst 2017 looks like being somewhere between a good year for both the US and Euro area economies sooner or later a recession will come along. Oh except of course in the forecasts of central bankers which seem to actually believe they have ended them! But my point is should it come then we will see a US central bank which has raised interest-rate but an ECB with them starting it in negative territory. The rationale as we look at comparisons is given here.

As such, the US recovery is way more advanced than ours

Quite a compliment for the United States I think.


This remains by historical standards relatively mild with this being the latest release from August.

The PCE price index increased
0.2 percent. Excluding food and energy, the PCE price index increased 0.1 percent.

This means that the annual rate for Personal Consumption Expenditure has fallen from 2.2% in February to 1.4% in August. So good news overall and in case you are wondering why CPI is not used the gap between the two measures is variable but tends to see CPI around 0.4% higher.


From the Bureau of Labour Statistics or BLS.

Real average hourly earnings increased 0.7 percent, seasonally adjusted, from September 2016 to
September 2017. The increase in real average hourly earnings combined with no change in the average
workweek resulted in a 0.6-percent increase in real average weekly earnings over this period.

So there is some growth but hardly stellar.


In many ways the US economy has done pretty well in the credit crunch era but this does not mean that there are not begged questions. This start in an apparent area of strength because the unemployment has fallen to 4.2% and the underemployment rate to 8.3%. But the catch as was discussed in the comments section yesterday comes from the participation rate which in spite of an improvement in September is some 3% lower than pre credit crunch. So what has happened to nearly 8 million people or ten million if we look further back?

The next issue is one of debt. I am not particularly thinking of the level of it but the way that it seems to have permulated and percolated back down to the sub-prime level again. From Bloomberg in August.

There’s a section of the auto-loan market — known in industry parlance as deep subprime — where delinquency rates have ticked up to levels last seen in 2007, according to data compiled by credit reporting bureau Equifax.

“Performance of recent deep subprime vintages is awful,” Equifax said in a slide show on second-quarter credit trends.

I dread to think what “deep subprime” means don’t you? As to the car market itself this from Automotive News does not seem entirely reassuring.

October is on track to be the second-best month of 2017 for U.S. new-vehicle sales, analysts said, partly due to surging demand in states recovering from hurricane damage, though volume is projected to fall slightly from the same month last year.

When will the next big hurricane come along to boost sales and I note what is happening with prices.

Fleming said incentives have risen to 11 percent of average transaction prices — “an indicator that new-vehicle demand is still contracting, and production cuts could be on the horizon to prevent oversupplies.”
Discounts are all but certain to rise further in the coming months, as automakers roll out year-end promotions that typically start in the next few weeks and stretch into early January.

My financial lexicon for these times of course defines an “incentive” as a price cut.